Raspberry Maroseyka: characteristics, features of cultivation
Thorny stems and not large enough fruits were always considered a raspberry deficiency. The variety, which will be discussed in the article, is devoid of these "minuses". About this, and more about the features of cultivation of raspberries Maroseyka - more.
Variety breeding history
Raspberries varieties Maroseyka - the result of the Institute of Horticulture (Moscow). The work was carried out under the guidance of Professor V.V. Kichina back in the 70s of the last century. Based on a variety of Scottish selection.
The emphasis is on obtaining larger and sweeter berries, as well as on increasing winter hardiness and disease resistance. At that time, it was the first shipless raspberry on the Russian market. But now this variety is of interest to many, despite the large abundance of other products.
The hallmark of the culture is the absence of thorns and large-fruited.
In addition, the plant has a number of characteristics:
- shoots reach a height of about one and a half meters and are covered with a wax coating;
- adult bushes are sprawling;
- leaves are large, warty at the edges, saturated green;
- a large number of substitution shoots (up to 10 pcs.) and about 5 root offspring are formed;
- fruit branches are powerful and consist of several branching orders (from 2 to 5). On the hands, an average of 20 berries is formed;
- winter hardiness is average, withstands frosts to -25 ° C;
- fruiting period - up to 10-15 years.
Fruits of the Maroseika:
- berries are cone-shaped, elongated and large (from 4 to 12 g);
- color is light red;
- covered with a slight bluish coating;
- seeds are small and few;
- the pulp is dense, juicy, sweet, with a slight acidity and raspberry aroma (resembling wild berries);
- not susceptible to shedding after ripening, but are well separated from the stem;
- a large percentage of twin fruits.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Culture is characterized by many positive aspects:
- the absence of thorns on the stems, which simplifies harvesting;
- tasty and large fruits;
- high productivity (from 4 to 6 kg per bush);
- the variety is not remontant, but sometimes gives a second crop;
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- good frost resistance (-25 ° C);
- suitability of the product for transportation and processing (drying, freezing, canning);
- ease of reproduction, which is facilitated by the numerous formation of shoots (which is more likely to be a disadvantage), as well as good survival of seedlings;
- resistance to major raspberry diseases.
- However, Maroseyka has some disadvantages:
- large volume and spreading of the bush, requiring support and tying;
- an excess of overgrown;
- superficial root system;
- the need for formative pruning of the bush;
- in the northern regions shelter for the winter period is required;
- due to genetic instability, crushing of berries is observed after a 10-year period of fruiting.
Did you know? Bees increase the yield of raspberries by 60%. Rain does not interfere with collecting nectar from raspberry flowers growing down.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Resistance to drought in a plant is not very high, since the root system is close to the surface of the soil. For this reason, additional irrigation is necessary. This fact creates additional difficulties for large-scale cultivation.
The variety is characterized by average frost resistance, located at -25 ° C (without shelter). Therefore, in the South, culture can winter without shelter.
In the middle and northern regions, in addition to bending to the ground, the bushes need to be insulated with protective material. This is especially true for those regions where there is little snow, but there are severe frosts and cold winds.
Did you know? From 1 ha of forest raspberries receive up to 70 kg of honey, and from the same volume of garden bushes - only 50 kg.
Productivity and fruiting
Features fruiting Maroseyka:
- in the second year after planting, the first crop ripens. In full force, fruiting begins already in the 3rd year;
- medium early variety;
- In the southern regions, fruiting begins already in mid-June, and in the rest - in the beginning and middle of July;
- most fruits are harvested 4-5 times;
- berry picking period - about a month;
- the variety is not remontant, therefore, bears fruit once a year, but sometimes there are repeated harvests.
Productivity is high and amounts to 4 kg per bush. Subject to intensive agricultural activities, this indicator can be increased to 6 kg or more. Productivity of 1 hundred parts is in the range of 180-200 kg. The variety is not very suitable for industrial cultivation.
Video: large-fruited raspberries of Maroseika variety
Given the characteristics of planting, growth and fruiting, each culture requires a certain approach.
Landing work can be carried out at your discretion, both in spring and in autumn.
Depending on the landing time, some features are taken into account:
- during spring planting, the site must be prepared in the fall. The event includes digging the soil to a depth of about 30 cm, as well as applying 40 g of potash fertilizers and superphosphate per 1 m²;
- Experts consider April to be the best time for planting in spring, when warm weather is established and the soil warms up to + 15 ° C;
- when planting raspberries in the fall, the preparatory work is the same as when spring planting, but they are carried out 30 days before the proposed work;
- Bushes are planted a month and a half before the first frost (October), so that the seedlings have time to take root and prepare for winter.
Choosing the right place
When deciding on the place of growing Maroseyka, you should know that this raspberry needs:
- Well lit areas. The sun's rays should fall on the site all day, otherwise the branches will stretch and become brittle, and the berries will acquire a sour taste.
- If the raspberry is still placed in partial shade, good supports should be prepared so that it is possible to tie up the elongated branches and thereby prevent them from breaking.
- The site should not be subjected to stagnation of melt or rain water, therefore it should be a flat or elevated territory. But too elevated areas are not suitable for the reason that the root system will dry up (close to the surface of the soil).
- Raspberries and cold drafts do not like, so it will be good if it is protected by a building or fence from the side of the northern winds.
- Raspberries are comfortable in neutral soils, so if the soil is acidic, it is necessary to add dolomite flour or lime (150-200 g / m²).
Selection and preparation of planting material
For the successful further cultivation of raspberries, first you need to choose the right seedlings and prepare for planting:
- the bushes should have well-developed roots; it is undesirable for them to be dried, rotten or damaged;
- in the aerial part, the presence of at least two lignified powerful shoots is desirable;
- when raising the upper layer of the bark, there should be a green layer under it - this indicates a good condition of the shoots;
- the bushes should be cut to 45 cm (so that 4-5 buds are left), and the roots should be placed in water for a couple of hours, and then dipped in a clay mash;
- sections are sprinkled with ash or activated carbon.
When planting raspberry seedlings, a few simple rules are followed:
- A hole is dug a little more than the size of the rhizome. Its depth is 35–40 cm.
- The bottom is covered with a drainage layer of crushed stone or broken brick.
- A peat-humus mixture (2: 1) and sand (1 part) are used as the main substrate. It can also be black earth and rotten straw or sawdust in equal parts.
- To prevent thickening of plantings and improve care for raspberries, adhere to a distance between bushes of 70-100 cm, and between rows - 1.5-2 m.
Important! So that raspberry bushes do not grow uncontrollably around the site, along the perimeter you can dig in the ground strip of iron or slate.
The landing algorithm is in the standard scheme:
- Dig a hole of the required size, approximately 0.5 × 0.4 × 0.4 m.
- Cover the bottom with drainage.
- In the center of the hole, make a mound from the main soil mixture.
- Place the seedling roots on a hill and spread them evenly.
- Fill the rhizome with soil (the replacement kidney should be slightly below the soil level) and lightly tamp.
- A shallow hole is made around the perimeter, into which water is poured.
- After absorbing moisture, the soil around the bush is mulched with straw, humus or sawdust.
Agro-technical measures for the care of Maroseyka are not much different from the standard care for any raspberry:
- In hot weather, plants require abundant watering so that the soil is saturated with moisture to a depth of 30–40 cm. In rainy weather, watering is reduced, and possibly completely stopped. An alternative option for irrigation is drip irrigation. Mulch also prevents rapid loss of moisture.
- An important technique for growing raspberries is mulching, because this crop prefers porous and moist soils. A good option is to shelter the earth in raspberries with newspapers that sprinkle any mulch on top (straw, shavings, mowed grass, and even kitchen waste). For mulching and further enrichment of the soil with microelements, in the autumn, siderates (phacelia, mustard, millet, oats) are sown between rows, which are mown and used for mulch in the spring.
- Even with the constant introduction of mulch, the use of top dressing will not be superfluous. In the spring, you can use the infusion of bird droppings (1 kg / 10 l for 7 days), diluted in a ratio of 1:10. In the fall, you can apply a complex infusion. It is prepared from grass (2/3 capacity), a glass of ash, a handful of granular manure or biohumus and 1.5 tbsp. sugar or jam. The mixture ferments for 10 days, gets diluted 1:10 and is used for watering.
- Maroseyka is prone to the formation of numerous shoots and growth, therefore, requires regular pruning. In spring, the shoots are cut out and no more than 5-6 substitution shoots are left. In autumn, remove all weak, dry and young shoots that will not tolerate wintering.
- For the volume of the bush, pinching the growth point at a height of 1 m is practiced. This technique is explained by the formation of new branches from secondary buds, which provide a better crop.
- It is necessary to install trellis and tying raspberry branches to it. This structure will hold the stems and provide access to plants for care and picking berries. A single-sheet trellis with 2 rows of wire or thick fishing line is suitable for this purpose.
Harvesting and storage
There are some features in collecting and storing the Maroseika crop:
- the fruits ripen gradually over a period of 1 month, so their collection is carried out in 3-4 stages;
- to increase the shelf life and transportability of berries, it is recommended to collect them with the stem;
- it is desirable to sell products in small volumes, and so that the point of sale is not far from the place of collection;
- the variety is more suitable not for sale, but for personal consumption. Berries can be frozen or used to make jam, jams, compotes and desserts.
Important! Raspberries varieties Maroseyka advised to grow in one place no more than 8 years.
A cold climate with frosts below -25 ° C is an indication for warming Maroseika raspberries for the winter. It is advisable to carry out the work at the end of September, since during this period the stems are quite flexible and do not break.
Warming consists of several sequential actions:
- Branches are collected in a bundle and connected.
- The bundle is tilted in one direction, and the top is tied to the base.
- The stems are neatly bent to the ground and fixed with metal hooks or staples.
- The top is covered with spanbond, agrofibre or other suitable material, or simply sprinkled with soil.
Many gardeners advise making shelter from foliage or straw, but this is dangerous when wintering mice appear in this place, who receive warm shelter and food.
Raspberry gives abundant growth, so its cultivation is not difficult.
Important! During the summer planting, raspberry seedlings manage to take root well and prepare for winter.
Several varieties of raspberry propagation are known:
Diseases and Pests
Maroseyka is resistant to many diseases, partly this is facilitated by a waxy coating that protects the plant from pathogenic microorganisms. But sometimes in case of violation of agricultural cultivation techniques, or due to adverse weather conditions, some diseases or pests may still appear:
- With increased humidity, the appearance of powdery mildewcharacterized by the appearance of white plaque. In the fight against the disease, Topaz, Skor, Fundazol fungicides are used, according to the instructions.
- With insufficient watering on all organs of raspberries, the formation of grayish spots with a purple border is possible. it anthracnose. For treatment, spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid is applied with an interval of 10 days.
- The appearance of small orange tubercles indicates a defeat rust. Such bushes are subject to destruction. For prevention, treatments are carried out with a 1% Bordeaux mixture.
- Yellowing leaves during fruiting may be a sign chlorosis. To prevent the spread of this disease, a struggle with sucking insects is carried out, for which purpose, in the spring, before the buds open, they are sprayed with a 3% solution of Nitrafen.
The fungicides Antracol, Previkur Energy, Skor and others are used to prevent infection with diseases during spring spraying. An alternative would be to use copper sulfate. When struck by thrips, raspberry beetles or other insects, Aktara, Detoil, Provado, Envidor are effective.
To prevent diseases and the appearance of pests, weeds must be removed on time, fertilized, not over-moistened, and adhered to basic agricultural practices.
About raspberries Maroseyka many positive reviews regarding its productivity and the size of delicious berries. But its cultivation in large volumes is not recommended. It is more suitable for amateur cultivation. In this case, the variety is unlikely to disappoint.
Network user reviews
It tastes sweet with a slight acidity. I didn’t notice the shedding of berries, but I always harvested the crops on time, did not allow me to re-rip, because the ripe berry is suitable only for wine.