Large raspberries: characteristics, features, best grades, rules of care
Raspberries are never bad. For its many varieties, a different criterion fits: one is better than the other. And here the leading position is occupied by large-fruited raspberries. Read more about large raspberry varieties in the article below.
Large-fruited raspberries: characteristics, features, advantages and disadvantages
This raspberry group includes varieties whose berries are capable of reaching a mass of 4 to 12 g. At the same time, record holders with a mass of berries under 20 g are observed. Experienced gardeners are able to determine the large-fruited seedlings before harvesting by elongated flower sepals. The size of berries in this raspberry group is supplemented by a large number of them on each bush, which allows you to remove up to 4-6 kg of crop from each bush.
- In addition to high productivity, large-fruited raspberries have, in comparison with ordinary varieties, such advantages:
- long fruiting period, reaching 20 years;
- active branching of fruit branches, on each of which up to 40 berries can grow;
- high gastronomic qualities of berries.
- The disadvantages of this raspberry group include:
- insufficient winter hardiness;
- a small number of substitution shoots, because of which it is necessary to plant a larger number of seedlings than when planting ordinary varieties;
- low resistance to diseases and pests.
Did you know? Raspberry fruit is actually not a whole berry at all, but is a multi-shoot, consisting of a large number of fused miserable fruits, each of which has its own bone.
Variety of varieties
The line of large-fruited raspberries is characterized by a very large number of varieties, which mainly differ:
- early or late ripening of berries;
- fruit color, which can be red or yellow;
- taste characteristics from sweet to sweet and sour;
- various resistance to diseases and pests.
Early and late ripening
The earliest varieties of large-fruited raspberries ripen in the 3rd decade of June, and the late remontant varieties give ripe berries until the onset of frost.
Red and yellow color of fruits
With the dominant red tones of raspberry fruit, there are many yellow-fruited varieties, as well as bushes with orange and even black berries.
Sweet and sweet and sour taste
Since almost all existing varieties of large-fruited raspberries were bred by breeding, in the process of selection high flavoring conditions were laid in them. However, they are overwhelmingly based on traditional raspberries: sweet dessert flavor and specific aroma. Sweet and sour taste is found in large-fruited raspberries quite rarely.
Did you know? Most raspberries are grown in Russia, where more than 200 thousand tons of these delicious fruits are produced annually.
Different resistance to frost and garden diseases
Not distinguished as a whole by high resistance to diseases and pests and frost resistance, large-fruited raspberries nevertheless, being represented by numerous varieties, vary greatly in resistance to cold and garden diseases.
The best varieties
There are few garden crops that could compete with raspberries in the number of cultivated and cultivated varieties.
This variety already in its name indicates large fruits that really reach a mass of 10 g, which allows you to collect up to 2.5 kg of berries from the 1st bush. They have a ruby color and taste that will satisfy every lover of sweet and sour berries. This variety is resistant to major garden diseases and the ability of dense fruits not to rot in ripened form.
They begin to ripen in early August and before the onset of cold weather they manage to bring 90% of the crop to full maturity
A hussar is a raspberry-free raspberry, besides such a rare dignity for a raspberry plant, it also has the ability to withstand colds and diseases. Its large and juicy fruits ripen early and reach a weight of 10 g.
This variety is also considered high yielding.
Early ripening berries of Patricia, reaching a weight of 14 g, are distinguished by juiciness, sweetness and a strong aroma. In addition, they have a good presentation, created by a truncated-conical shape and an attractive velvety surface.
The variety is characterized by a stable high annual yield.
The Bryansk marvel is not distinguished by the large weight of its berries, which is only 6 g, but the yield of compact bushes of this raspberry crop reaches 5 kg from each bush.
Bristol is black
Black Bristol is a medium-sized raspberry bush on which rounded black berries with a whitish bloom grow. They ripen at the end of July and are distinguished by high palatability.
The variety is not very susceptible to garden diseases and pests.
A variety with such a loud name is distinguished by its ability to produce a stable crop under different climatic and soil conditions, which justifies its name. From each bush manages to collect up to 2.5 kg of large berries. At the same time, the raspberry variety Eurasia has a good resistance to diseases and pests.
Raspberry Zhuravlik is distinguished by an enviable winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases, but can’t boast the weight of its berries, which does not exceed 3.5 g. In addition, their sweet and sour taste is for everyone.
It has a tall bush devoid of thorns. You can remove up to 4.5 kg of dense red-orange berries with an average ripening period and a mass of 7 g.
It is characterized by low susceptibility to many garden diseases and pests.
Its berries reach a weight of 7 g. At the same time, the raspberry culture of Fantasy does not tolerate low temperatures.
The variety is devoid of thorns
Gives up to 4 kg from a bush of large (6 g or more) berries with a mild aroma and ripening in mid-summer.
The variety is characterized by sweet berries of a radical red color and weighing up to 4 g, ripening in the second half of summer.
High-yielding culture, giving from the bush up to 9 kg of berries that have a yellow color, a pleasant taste and a memorable aroma. The berries of the Golden Autumn are characterized by good transportability.
Large berries of the Golden Dome variety reach a weight of more than 10 g, have an orange color and ripen in early August, giving a yield of up to 4 kg from each bush.
Video: Golden Dome Domestic Raspberries
The bush of this raspberry is tall, it gives sweet berries of a classic raspberry color with a weight of up to 5 g. From each Cleopatra bush, on average, 4 kg of berries can be removed. They ripen in the middle of summer.
Margarita belongs to raspberries, which gives 2 worthy crops on tall bushes reaching a height of 3 m during the growing season. Large red berries have a mass of 11 g and are distinguished by good transportability and ability to successfully store.
The variety adapts well to changing growing conditions and demonstrates good resistance to diseases and pests.
It is also called the Raspberry tree, which is a dense group bush, reaching a height of 1.8 m. It is distinguished by the absence of thorns. Red berries reach an average size and are characterized by sweetness and strong aroma.
Belongs to new and perspective repairing grades. Bushes rise to a height of 2 m. Rounded and dense berries during late ripening reach a weight of up to 10 g. They can be stored for a long time without loss of marketability, do not wrinkle and do not flow, and tolerate freezing and thawing well. They have a balanced taste and pleasant aroma.The variety has good immunity and is practically not affected by a spider mite and diseases of the root system.
Its tall bushes, reaching 1.8 m, give dark red rounded berries weighing up to 9 g, characterized by great sweetness and strong aroma. When collecting, they do not wrinkle and are able to tolerate transportation well.
Sokolitsa, an early ripe variety, has shrubs up to 1.7 m high, covered with spikes, which, however, do not prick. Berries reach a mass of 14 g, have good gastronomic qualities, do not crumple during collection, are characterized by good transportability and can be stored for up to 6 days.
The variety is resistant to viral diseases.
Early ripe berries of Rubifol weighing up to 8 g are distinguished by their density, the ability not to crumble when ripe and not to crumple when harvested. Stamped bushes are completely devoid of thorns.
The variety is characterized by good transportability of berries and a balanced taste.
This repairing variety is known for its giant berries, reaching mass in 20 g. Moreover, Monomakh’s hatchery bears fruit to the cold. Berries have a sweet taste with a slight acidity.
From the 1st bush they can be collected up to 6 kg
The yellow-golden color of dense fragrant, but not very large berries is a hallmark of this raspberry. Raspberry fruits Orange miracle is well transported. From the 1st bush they collect up to 2.5 kg.
Its berries of medium early ripening differ in mass reaching 9 g and sweet and sour taste. The fruits are saturated with ascorbic acid. At the same time, Polana demonstrates good resistance to garden diseases and pests.
This raspberry variety has large berries weighing over 10 g. They are painted in a radical red color, have a juicy pulp of a sweet taste with a characteristic raspberry aroma. The Moscow giant is characterized by high productivity and early ripening of fruits.
Belongs to early grades. Berries reach a weight of 9 g, have a bright red color with a whitish coating, sweet taste and pronounced aroma.
They are distinguished by excellent transportability, the ability not to crumple during collection and not leak during storage
With a fruit weight of up to 10 g, the variety does not have a high yield. The berries have a bright red color, sweet and sour taste, fleshy and dense pulp.
The variety is characterized by great complexity of cultivation.
Primara is a super-early harvested raspberry variety with light red sour-sweet berries and a strong aroma. Their feature is low heat resistance.
Ripe fruits are prone to shedding
Large berries reach a weight of 7 g, have a dense, fleshy and juicy pulp, good taste characteristics and versatility of use. When fully ripened, do not crumble. They are distinguished by good transportability and the ability to successfully undergo freezing and thawing.
On its tall bushes (up to 2.5 m) large fruits ripen up to 9 g in weight. The yield of Lilac fog reaches 5 kg from the 1st bush. It is distinguished by its whimsicality and good adaptability to changing growing conditions, as well as winter hardiness.
It is distinguished by even greater winter hardiness than the previous variety, excellent transportability of berries and good keeping quality. However, the taste of the fruits leaves much to be desired, differing in acidic characteristics.
Phoenix resists major garden diseases and pests well
On tall (up to 2 m) bushes, raspberries ripen up to 7 g. They have a dark red color, fleshy flesh, sweet-sour taste and small seeds that are not felt during meals. Fruits are distinguished by good transportability and keeping quality. The native productivity is 5 kg per bush.
At the genetic level, is immune to 4 major raspberry viral diseases
It is characterized by a winter hardiness record for raspberry plants. The fruits of Altai dessert raspberries have a sweet taste, pleasant aroma and weight of 4.5 g.
Compact ankle-free bushes Anfisa give late ripening fruits weighing 10 g or more, light red in color with a matte surface of berries, sweet taste and fragrant aroma. The plant is able to withstand frosts down to -30 ° C. Productivity reaches 4 kg per bush.
It is highly resistant to disease.
Fruits of medium ripening have a sweet and sour taste, light red color, meatiness, juiciness, versatility and weight up to 4.5 g. Moreover, Kaliningradskaya raspberries are not frost-resistant, and its fruits have good transportability and shelf life.
This old variety is not resistant to diseases and pests.
Korpiko berries reach a mass of 7 g, have a strong sweetness, pronounced aroma and good transportability. The variety is characterized by early ripening, resistance to frost and disease.
Quasar fruits ripening in the middle of summer reach a weight of 5 g, have a dark red color, a very good taste and a characteristic raspberry aroma.
The variety is characterized by good winter hardiness and resistance to most raspberry diseases.
It is distinguished by very large berries, whose weight, amounting to 20 g, can reach even 25 g. The fruits have a very good presentation, excellent taste, strong berry aroma, versatility of use and good transportability.
Productivity reaches 12 kg from the 1st bush
Features of agricultural technology
For growing raspberries, sunny areas that are protected from strong winds and stagnant water are best suited. Soil should be loose, breathable and saturated with nutrients. The raspberry must be free from weeds, especially from wheat grass.
- In addition, you should not plant raspberry bushes next to or after:
- garden strawberries.
- It is useful if before in the area selected for raspberry growing:
Important! In the area where raspberry was previously located, raspberry bushes should not be re-planted earlier than after 5 years.
For planting seedlings in spring, summer or autumn should:
- Dig a trench with a maximum depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.5 m.
- Lay peat soil, rotted leaves, sawdust, compost in layers. The layers are interspersed with layers of garden soil with the addition of a small amount of wood ash.
- Shortly before planting, shorten the seedling to 0.5 m in height.
- Release the roots by shaking from the ground and place in a trench.
- Fill the root system with soil, while deepening the stem into the soil by 3 cm.
- Abundantly water the seedling.
- Mulch moist soil with crushed peat, sawdust or dry humus.
To properly grow raspberries, she needs subsequent care, which consists in:
- regular watering;
- fertilizing with fertilizers;
- loosening the soil.
Raspberries require frequent watering, especially in the spring or dry summer days. It is desirable to water it with settled water in such a way that the soil is moistened, but at the same time moisture stagnation is not observed in it.
Raspberries respond very well to weeding weeds, which is usually associated with loosening the soil. In addition, loosening should be carried out after each irrigation or rain. This allows you to prevent the formation of earth crust, which prevents air exchange in the root system of plants.
Pruning raspberry bushes is carried out in the spring, summer and autumn. First of all, branches older than 2 years are removed.Harvest on them is small and at the same time they thicken the bushes, interfere with the access of air and sunlight to the stems and fruits. For the same purpose, excessive branches are eliminated, especially if they are affected by diseases, pests or weather.
During the growing season, plants are fed with fertilizers about 3 times. In the spring, when a plant needs nitrogen to build green mass, it is fed with organic fertilizers in the form of mullein or bird droppings. Before flowering, the soil around raspberry bushes is enriched with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus, which stimulate the formation of flower buds. Potash fertilizers are added to the soil even after harvesting. This makes raspberries easier to tolerate during the winter.
Harvesting and storage
Gardening guidelines recommend picking raspberries in the early morning.
Only mature fruits that are easily detached from the receptacle are subject to collection.. The berry is taken with 3 fingers and, without squeezing, is separated by a slight twist from the receptacle. Sometimes berries are harvested with it, which complicates the collection process, but it significantly improves the ability of berries to store and transport. Berries are collected in booties, which, after filling, are installed in cardboard or plastic boxes of 8-12 pieces each.
Important! It is extremely undesirable to pick berries in the presence of dew on them or the remnants of the past rain, since this drastically reduces the shelf life of the berries.
The optimum humidity for storing raspberries is 90–95%. At lower humidity, the fruits lose turgor, the shelf life is sharply reduced along with transportability. To ensure that humidity is at the optimum level, raspberry-filled booties are wrapped in a perforated stretch film or placed next to humidifiers. At a temperature of 0 ... + 2 ° С, raspberry berries can be stored for up to 2–4 days. If they were collected in dry and cool weather in the fall, then the shelf life can last up to a week.
Diseases and Pests
Possessing different degrees of resistance to diseases and pests, varieties of large-fruited raspberries are united by the fact that mainly Plants weakened due to improper agricultural practices are exposed to diseases and pest attacks. Thus, the main preventive measure to prevent such problems is the exact implementation of agricultural regulations.
Most often, raspberries suffer from the following ailments:
- Gray rot (botritis), characterized by the appearance on the berries of gray spots, which, increasing, capture the entire fruit. It undergoes decay and is covered with a gray coating containing fungal spores that, when scattered, can infect the entire raspberry. They struggle with gray rot by thinning out plantings, removing infected bushes, and treating the remaining plants with fungicides. As a preventative measure in spring, raspberries are treated with Bordeaux liquid.
- Anthracnose, which is also a fungal disease that affects, in addition to berries, also stems with foliage. It manifests itself in the formation on the stems of gray-white spots with a dark red edging, which lead to tissue necrosis under them. Sprawling spots lead to ulcerative formations. As emergency preventive and therapeutic measures, infected bushes are removed, the remaining ones are treated with preparations containing copper. In addition, thickened plantings are rarefied.
- White and purple spotting, manifested by the appearance on the leaves and stems of brown spots, gradually whitening or acquiring a purple hue. For treatment, copper-containing preparations are used. As a preventive measure, plantings are thinned out and the affected plants are removed.
- Raspberry rust, affecting raspberry stems and foliage, forming yellow growths on them, which lead to the drying of the stems and wilting of the leaves.To prevent and treat the disease, fallen leaves are collected and burned, and bushes are sprayed three times with a 1 percent Bordeaux mixture.
- Curly Raspberries, which is a viral disease that manifests itself by twisting the leaves into a tube, which leads to their drying. At the same time, berries are deformed, which also acquire a sour taste. There is no cure for this disease. Affected bushes must be destroyed.
Of the pests, raspberries most often suffer from:
- Raspberry beetlethat damages flower buds, and its larvae damage fruits. For prevention in the fall, the soil around raspberry bushes is dug, while destroying beetle larvae. During the formation of the buds of beetles manually collected from them. In addition, they are sprayed with Karbofos.
- Raspberry stem flies, which lays eggs in the sinuses and on the tops of raspberry shoots. Hatched larvae eat out the core of shoots. They struggle with a fly through autumn digging of the soil and spraying of bushes during the flight of the “Karbofos” flies.
- Stem raspberry gall midges, which is embedded in the core of the stems, eating it and causing the shoots to dry out. If you do not deal with the pest, then it is able to very quickly destroy up to 70% of raspberry planting. They fight the gall midge with the help of Fufanon, Alatar, Iskra-M, and Aktellik preparations. As a preventive measure, damaged stems are removed in the fall and spring.
- Shoot raspberry aphid, which, forming colonies, leads to curl of leaves, inhibition of shoot growth and drying of flowers. They fight aphids using the same drugs that are used against gall midges.
Large-fruited raspberries, in addition to their undoubted gastronomic qualities and high yields, have another major advantage: the abundance of varieties, numbering many tens, can satisfy literally any taste. Today raspberry trees, consisting of large-fruited raspberry varieties, occupy leading positions in rural courtyards, in summer cottages, and on plantations of an industrial scale.