Moscow giant - large-fruited beshipny raspberries: features of cultivation, productivity
Almost every domestic gardener cultivates raspberries. Fortunately, today there are many varieties of culture that make it possible to cultivate a plant in any climatic zone. One of the most promising new varieties is considered to be the Moscow Giant, which pleases with large fruits and the absolute absence of shoots. How to properly care for raspberries of the described variety and when you need to harvest - further in the article.
Large-fruited raspberry Giant Moscow
Raspberry Giant Moscow (Gigantella or Moscow Giant) is a half-repairing variety of early ripening, the distinguishing feature of which is the large size of the berries and the absence of thorns on the shoots. The culture was bred just a few years ago by Moscow breeders, but has already managed to fall in love with many domestic gardeners.
Did you know? The world leader in raspberry cultivation is the Russian Federation. The second and third places are by a large margin occupied by Serbia and the United States, respectively.
Appearance of the bush, characteristics of berries, productivity
The Moscow giant belongs to the category of semi-maintenance plants, which in the first year of growth yield partially, only on the upper parts of the shoots. In the second year, fruits are harvested from the lower tiers of branches. In the process of growth, raspberries form quite tall, up to 2 m bushes, with powerful, thick shoots on which thorns are completely absent. The green mass of the plant is represented by numerous "pimply" large leaves of bright green color. Bushes per season form about 10 replacement branches and 4-6 root offspring.
After abundant flowering, large, weighing 20–25 g, regular conical berries of saturated bright red color with a shiny surface are formed on the plant. The pulp is quite dense, with a high juice content, has an amazing sweet, raspberry flavor and a distinctive characteristic aroma. The fruits have a small amount of small seeds, which are almost not felt when eaten. Due to the dense structure of the berries are characterized by good keeping quality and are amenable to transportation.
The purpose of raspberries is universal - it is great for fresh consumption, as well as for preparing winter preparations, jams, preserves, various culinary dishes, desserts, etc. One of the main features of the variety is its high yield. Providing normal care for the plant, it is able to please a crop of 10-12 kg of berries from one bush.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The feedback of gardeners who are engaged in growing the Giant suggests that he has a number of positive qualities that distinguish him from others:
- large-fruited and high productivity;
- good taste of the fruit;
- excellent resistance to diseases;
- universal use of fruits;
- high crop productivity;
- excellent keeping quality and transportability of berries;
- resistance to frost, the possibility of cultivation in any climatic zones;
- simplicity in leaving.
Among the minor minuses of raspberries, one can note a strong growth of the green mass of bushes, which necessitates regular pruning of shoots.
Important! The Moscow giant variety has not been fully studied, especially with regard to its cultivation in the northern regions of the state. That is why some of its main characteristics, the description of which was presented above, may differ slightly with the real parameters.
Features of agricultural technology
The agrotechnics of growing raspberries of the described variety is quite simple, but it requires compliance with the basic principles of plant care. The full development of the culture will largely depend on the quality of planting material, the correct planting of seedlings and further care for them.
Large-fruited raspberries Gigantella prefers sunny, well-lit area that is protected from cold winds and drafts, and in winter it is provided with a sufficiently large amount of snow mass. The best option would be a fairly flat area with a slight slope of 2-3 degrees.
The plant grows well on nutritious, loose, breathable soils with weak or neutral acidity. The soil should be moist enough, but not swampy. Before planting raspberries, it is recommended to enrich the earth with organic substances, for example, bird droppings, compost or mullein solution.
Since the large-fruited variety requires a large amount of nutrients in the soil, experienced gardeners recommend one year before planting seedlings on the site to sow green manure, which are suitable white mustard or clover.
Important! When planting raspberries, the principles of crop rotation must be observed. You can not plant a plant in the beds where solanaceous crops, in particular, tomatoes or potatoes, used to grow, since they are affected by the same diseases.
The technology of planting raspberries is quite simple and is based on the following actions:
- dig a hole or trench with a depth of 45-50 cm;
- at the bottom of the recess, line a layer of a mixture of nutrient soil, manure and superphosphate;
- make a small earthen mound in the pit and put a seedling on it, gently straightening the root processes;
- fill the plant with soil so that the root neck remains on the surface by 5-6 cm.
After planting, seedlings must be abundantly watered with settled, cold water, and the soil should be mulched with a layer of peat, straw, and hay.
When planting raspberries, the interval between the bushes should be about 1 m, between rows - 1.5–2 m
Landing and care
Unpretentiousness in leaving is considered one of the advantages of the Moscow-based giant raspberry-free raspberry variety. However, regular and timely provision of basic agricultural techniques will allow significantly increase plant productivity and positively affect yield indicators:
- Watering. Since the variety is large-fruited and high-yielding, it requires quite plentiful watering. It is necessary to strictly monitor the level of moisture and avoid both excessive drought and excessive moisture, which equally negatively affect the condition of the plant. The number of irrigation activities will depend on the weather conditions in the region.. In drought, the bushes are watered 2-3 times a week, in normal weather 3-4 times a month. The raspberry should be watered in the evening to prevent burns to the root system. After wetting the plants, it is recommended to loosen the soil and weed the weeds.
- Top dressing. Culture during the period of active vegetation needs a large amount of nutrients necessary for the normal ripening and growth of berries. Bushes should be fed every 5-6 weeksalternating organic and mineral substances. The Giant reacts most positively to the infusion of mullein diluted with water in a proportion of 1:10, or bird droppings diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20. Also, dry fertilizers are used to feed the bushes, for example, manure, which is scattered around the bed. It is better to use dry products before the rain.
Favorable climatic conditions of cultivation, as well as competent care lead to the fact that the plant forms a large number of ovaries. In this case, it is recommended that rationing the crop by removing excess ovaries.
Did you know? There are many different varieties of raspberries, characterized by the color of berries: yellow, white, red, black. In this case, the color of berries affects their composition and benefits. For example, white is less useful than yellow. Red is more useful than yellow. And the richest in nutrients is considered black.
Pest and Disease Control
The Moscow giant has excellent immunity and is able to withstand many of the most common diseases and parasites. Under adverse climatic conditions, as well as improper care, it can sometimes be affected by such ailments:
- Powdery mildew - a fungal disease, which manifests itself in the form of white plaque on the leaves and berries, as a result of which the affected areas blacken and dry out. To combat the disease, it is recommended to spray the bushes with broad-spectrum fungicides.
- Anthracnose - a fungal ailment, the main symptoms of which are small spots of gray color on leaf plates and stem. During the development of the fungus, the spots grow and form ulcers, which leads to curling of the leaves, drying out of the stems and deformation of the berries. For the treatment of the disease, all affected parts are cut out, the scraps are burned, and the plant is sprayed with solutions of fungicidal preparations.
- Purple spotting - fungal disease affecting all parts of the culture. The diseased areas first acquire a purple color, then become red-brown. If untreated, the bushes are destroyed, the leaves dry out, the bark cracks. To prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to treat them with a solution of Bordeaux fluid at the initial stage of growth of the bushes.
Of the pests, raspberries are most often attacked:
To prevent the occurrence of insects, it is recommended that in early spring, before the buds open, spraying with Fitoverm biological product. If there are pests in the fall, you can treat the bushes with the universal drug Fufanon.
Effective preventive measures against ailments and parasites are:
- regular loosening of soil and cleaning of weeds;
- soil moisture control, preventing its waterlogging;
- pruning shoots, thinning bushes;
- preventive spraying of plants with biological products;
- compliance with crop rotation rules.
The plants of the described variety are characterized by powerful, high shoots that can break under the weight of large berries. That is why it is recommended to tie the bushes using homemade trellises. Such structures consist of several vertical posts, between which a wire is horizontally stretched. The branches of the plant are neatly spread and tied to the wire with soft, elastic tissue sections.
Tapestries can not only prevent shedding of fruits and deformation of shoots, they greatly simplify the care of the bushes, harvesting, provide the culture with enough light and air.
Pruning and wintering
Since raspberries form a fairly large number of substitution shoots during the growing season, it needs more pruning than other varieties. The rapid growth of branches creates thickening of bushes, which significantly reduces yield indicators and prevents the full ripening of berries. That is why the procedure for cutting the shoots must be carried out without fail.
Did you know? Experts recommend regularly consuming raspberries for those people who are experiencing stress or nervous tension. The berries contain an increased percentage of copper, which is part of most antidepressants. Thus, eating fruits helps to cope with a depressed state, calms the nervous system, and relieves stress.
Specialists advise to carry out pruning events in the fall, after a complete discharge of foliage.During the procedure, old, lifeless, damaged and non-bearing branches are removed. In addition, shorten the tops of the shoots of the first year, which are fruitless. Every year, in early spring, sanitary circumcision should be carried out, removing all “obsolete” and excess branches.
The Moscow giant is distinguished by good winter hardiness; therefore, when cultivating raspberries of the described variety in the southern and central regions, there is no need to cover it for the winter. When growing raspberries in cold climates, he needs to provide reliable protection for the winter. For this:
- the branches are removed from the supports and gently tilted to the ground. The procedure is performed until the sap flow in the plant has stopped and the shoots remain flexible;
- the bushes are covered with burlap, agrofibre or any other breathable material.
Harvesting and transportation
Raspberry Gigantella belongs to the category of early ripening plants, the berries of which ripen in the first weeks of July, while fruiting continues until October. Berry picking events are recommended in the morning or evening, in dry, warm weather. The fruits are picked together with the stalks and placed in small plastic or wooden containers. Harvesting berries together with the stem will contribute to their longer storage and preservation of appearance during transportation.
Raspberries of the described variety due to the dense structure of the fruit has excellent keeping quality and can be transported over long distances without loss of presentation. It is better to store the product in the refrigerator. Since the berries do not let juice in during and after harvest, they are better than freezing fruits of other varieties.
Raspberry The Moscow giant rightfully deserved its "loud" name. It is able to please large harvests of large, weighty and extremely tasty fruits that have a great fresh taste and can be excellent raw materials for winter harvesting. The described culture is absolutely unpretentious in leaving, however, for stable fruiting it needs regular watering, high-quality top dressing and the obligatory pruning of shoots.