Raspberry transplant: spring or autumn - advantages and disadvantages
Delicious, nutritious and unpretentious raspberries are a valuable addition to any garden. But periodically it is necessary to transplant it, moving the raspberry to a new place or supplementing it with new plants. This article will tell you about raspberry transplant, timing and selection of planting material.
Transplanting raspberries is a simple but important process.
It is performed for several reasons:
- an increase in the size of raspberries;
- overgrown and difficult to process shrub;
- mixing varieties;
- the need to transfer raspberries to a new place in 7-10 years to avoid the accumulation of pests and pathogens in the soil.
As a rule, the need for transplantation can be seen during the period of active growth, but do not rush to plant immediately - prepare the site in advance and choose the appropriate time when the plants are ready to move, and the soil condition and weather conditions become favorable.
In regions with mild winters, raspberries can be planted in late autumn so that plants can take root. But if winters are very cold and not very snowy, you should postpone planting in spring. In any case, the plants are transplanted at rest - in early spring or late autumn. The lack of active growth during these periods makes it easier for them to survive the stress of division and take root in a new place.
Did you know? Every berry raspberries have 100-120 seeds that can germinate. Birds, eating sweet fruits, provide raspberries widespread.
Spring transplant: why it is convenient and effective
In early spring, raspberries are transplanted, as soon as the soil dries slightly and becomes convenient for cultivation, the threat of return frosts passes, but before any signs of active growth of stems appear. You can not plant raspberries in swampy and frozen soil.After the plant leaves its dormant state in early spring, active sap flow and intensive growth begins, the roots fully provide the seedling with nutrients and moisture, and it effectively takes root in a new place.The disadvantage of spring planting raspberries is that due to untimely transplanting and weather conditions, namely, the absence of rain and heat, the survival of seedlings is sharply reduced and without constant watering they can dry out. In addition, late frosts can ruin a tender new sprout that is not yet protected by a stiff layer of bark. For spring transplanting, planting pits and trenches are prepared in the fall.
Autumn transplant: benefits
The autumn transplant procedure is carried out at the end of the growing season, when the stems finish fruiting and discard the leaves.
- The process of autumn planting raspberries has several advantages:
- plants planted in autumn do not spend energy on growing shoots and can direct all their strength and energy to the development and strengthening of the root system, the growth of which continues after the end of the growing season;
- in the fall, cool weather prevails with natural precipitation, which provides plants with moisture and protects them from overheating;
- successful wintering and good rooting will make it possible in the next season to get powerful shoots of substitution, and possibly pick the first berries;
- in the fall, an experienced gardener has more free time to pre-prepare a place for a raspberry;
- planting stock in nurseries is cheaper in the fall.
But it should be borne in mind that in climatic zones with early frosty winters there is a risk that the plants do not have time to take root before the onset of cold weather and die. Transplant dates are chosen (September-October) depending on the climate of the region and the variety of seedlings - the optimum air temperature is + 15 ° C, before freezing temperatures - 3 weeks.
Preparing a place for a new raspberry
When planting crops, it is necessary to control the growth of weeds, which compete with plants for nutrients and moisture and can cause the spread of diseases and pests. For this purpose, the site is dug up, removing all perennial weeds.
Choose a plot in the garden that is protected from strong winds (a good option is at the fence or walls of buildings on the north wall), with fertilized and well-drained soil with acidity pH 6.0–6.5. Make sure the soil is moist at the right place, dig it over and spread overripe manure or compost.
The raspberry should be in the sun for most of the day to bear fruit better, but slight shading and ambient light are allowed. The place is flat, the slope of the plot is not more than 12%, so that the water does not drain during irrigation.
What can grow in front of raspberries
It is good to break raspberries on the place where row crops (except solanaceous), cereals and legumes, perennial grasses and siderates grew. Good companions of raspberries are apple trees, garlic, turnips, from herbs - yarrow, tansy.
If you grow vegetables in the garden, then choose a place for the raspberry bush away from crops that have the same pests with raspberries (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplant, strawberries).
Features of spring training
For a spring transplant, you need to outline and prepare the site in the fall. The period between thawing and warming up of land in March and the beginning of active growth of shoots is too short, and untimely planting can lead to the death of seedlings.
In the designated place, digging holes or trenches, which are filled with organic plant debris, mowed grasses without seeds and fertilized soil with the addition of:
- dolomite flour;
- rotted manure.
Features of Autumn Training
It is necessary to prepare the site for autumn transplantation in 4-6 weeks so that the earth settles, and there is still enough heat in the soil to restore the roots. This is best done in August-September after fruiting.
Important! Nitrogen fertilizers are not applied under the winter, so as not to cause the re-growth of young shoots and thereby weaken the root system.
Rows and pits are marked taking into account the fact that raspberry will grow on this site for about 10 years, therefore, there is a sufficient distance between the trenches and pits to provide seedlings with good ventilation, lighting and warming the soil. Rows are preferably located in the north-south direction.
Raspberry rhizome lives for 10-15 years, but raspberry bush itself does not degenerate, since the bush constantly gives rise to substitution shoots that grow from sleeping root buds and underground root processes that are first associated with the mother bush, and then independently root and develop their own root system. Thanks to this, raspberries are both hardy and easy to propagate. So easy that it can become an invasive species - displace other garden plants and take a place between the rows.
This ability gives a wide selection of planting material, which are used as:
- annual shoots from the buds of the roots of the mother plant (substitution shoots);
- young shoots;
- division of the bush of an adult plant;
- purchased seedlings from nurseries.
For planting, choose an annual seedling 40-50 cm high, with a well-developed root system and without signs of harmful lesions. Purchased seedlings should not have sprouted root buds with young shoots - this will affect the engraftment badly.It is advisable to prepare material for planting in the fall, as it is difficult to choose suitable seedlings in the spring due to early and intensive growth. If it is not possible to plant the shoots immediately, they can be dug in the trench, and in the spring to be planted in a permanent place.
The transplantation of adult raspberry bushes is carried out in the same way as the initial planting. It is necessary to carefully dig up the plant and, together with the earthen lump, transfer it to a new place.
It is better to do this in the fall after harvest, by cutting off the stalks at the ground level.
Young shoots are processes that appear on the roots of the mother plant, sometimes at a distance of 3 m, and having their fibrous roots, which are located very close to the surface of the earth. New processes can be cut by 5–8 cm with a spatula along with the roots and transplanted to a depth of 10–15 cm. Any rooted processes can be planted. Not always the root power speaks of the quality of subsequent growth - everything is decided by the proper care of the plants.
The greatest number of processes appears for 3-4 years. Depending on the variety, one raspberry bush can produce 3–80 shoots during the summer. If you have several varieties of raspberries on the plot, then make sure that the varieties do not mix - otherwise it will be difficult to choose the shoot of the desired variety for transplantation.
Two-year-old raspberry stalks die off, and substitution shoots from root buds grow to replace them. Such young shoots are used for transplanting to the place of new plantings. It is necessary to carefully cut a part of the mother bush up to 15 cm in diameter with a shovel while maintaining an earthen coma.The thickness of young stems should be at least 1 cm, height - 25-30 cm, and on the roots - 1-2 root buds. Use only such shoots for transplanting.
Important! When separating root shoots of substitution, do not remove more than a third of the raspberry roots. Excessive removal is harmful to the mother plant, it reduces the supply of its strength and energy.
Raspberries grow very quickly, so when transplanting, make sure that the bushes are located at a great distance from each other to provide space for the raspberry to expand.
Two ways of planting raspberries are possible - a simple system of trenches and a dimple method. You can also use the pyramid system, in which 3-5 bushes are planted in a pit way in a circle and branches are fixed in a supporting structure in the center of the circle. There are raspberry varieties that can be grown in pots and containers, placing them on terraces and balconies.
If you want to establish a root barrier for raspberries, then place boards, slate or stones to a depth of 30 cm in the dug holes or trenches - this will restrain the growth of young shoots outside the zone of rows and facilitate the care of raspberries.
With the pit or bush method of transplantation, raspberry bushes are planted in separate pits, which should be two times wider and deeper than the size of the root system of the seedling. The pits are arranged in a ribbon-like manner along stretched twine at a distance of 60–100 cm from each other or in a checkerboard pattern.
The roots of the plant should be covered with 8 cm of soil, while the root neck is slightly deepened - it will come to the surface after the subsidence of the soil. The patching method allows you to grow raspberries in small and limited areas in any part of the garden, but complicates control over growth.
With a trench or in-line transplant method, raspberries are usually planted in dug ditches 45 × 50 cm at a distance of 45–60 cm from each other, maintaining a distance of 1.5–2.5 m between the rows. for better adhesion of the roots to the soil.
It is advisable to prepare trenches in advance - 1–1.5 months before planting, so that the earth settles well. The trench method provides an even distribution of nutrients and moisture throughout the planting area and inhibits the growth of raspberries within a row, but it is more time-consuming than bush.
Transplanted Raspberry Care
The purpose of further care is to help the seedlings take root, root and not die in the winter. When planting in autumn, the seedlings are not pruned, but only pinched so that the nutrients of the leaves and stem work to strengthen and develop the roots.
Did you know? Presumably, the name "raspberries" comes from the word "small", because its berries are composed of many small fruits. However, it cannot be ruled out that the Latin word “mullouse” is the basis - reddish.
It is necessary to mulch new plantings with a 10 cm layer of straw - This significantly increases the ability of rooting and survival of plants. However, straw mulch should only be used for rooting, because excessive moisture under the mulch can increase the risk of root rot.
Mulch and herbicides can be used to control weeds after planting. To suppress weeds between rows, it is recommended to plant lawn grass with a slowly growing turf.
Recently transplanted raspberry plants should be regularly watered, and shading should also be provided. Do not let the plants dry out during periods of drought and make sure that the soil is constantly moist at a depth of 25–35 cm. Rainwater harvesting may be a good practice. for irrigation and the use of a drip irrigation system in summerto avoid erosion of the topsoil and water on leaves, flowers, berries.
To combat harmful infections, try to use all available methods to reduce the likelihood of disease and insect damage. Many problems with pests can be avoided by choosing the right site, as well as by crop rotation, selecting varieties, cultivating the soil and planting healthy plants without signs of disease. All shoots that appear outside the planting area should be weeded out, keeping the row width of about 30 cm.
Features of autumn care
Although raspberry bushes can tolerate low temperatures, frost in both autumn and spring can damage dormant plants.
There are several options for protecting raspberries from frost and the destructive effects of winds:
- transplanting raspberries to protect fences or walls of household buildings;
- mulching the plantation for the winter with a thick layer (20–25) cm of mulch;
- shelter with agrofiber, spruce branches or any other insulation;
- ensuring a sufficient layer of snow so that the leaf part of the seedlings remains in the zone of optimal comfort. As snow-retaining structures, wood shields, high stalks of corn and sunflower, and spruce branches are used.
In case of icing of the snow flask, it should be punched so that raspberries have access to the air.
Spring transplant and fruiting
Planting near the northern wall of garden buildings will allow raspberries to remain dormant in spring longer and protect them from freezing in case of spring frosts. Waking up bushes with a forecast of a drop in temperature should be protected with additional covering material at night.Spring transplantation excludes the harvest of the current season - the plants need to take root and take root in a new place (they are pinched or pruned), so they will bear fruit on the two-year-old shoots of next year.
Video: How to transplant raspberries
Control the overgrowth of raspberry, thin out the extra shoots if necessary, replanting them to a new place. So you will increase the area of an existing berry or you can transfer it to a new site.
Now you know how and when to transplant raspberries in order to achieve maximum efficiency and make plantings resistant to adverse environmental factors. There is nothing particularly complicated, but the results will not be long in coming. Having taken root in a new place, raspberries will delight you with a generous harvest.