Large-scale outdoor raspberry cultivation: technology
The effectiveness of raspberry cultivation primarily depends on the correct site selection and the creation of optimal conditions for growth and fruiting. Contributes to this and the observance of crop rotation. About how to grow a plant on its acres in an industrial way, which varieties are more preferable, and which crop you can count on - read further in the review.
Raspberry Farm Technology
Raspberry production is great for medium and small farmers, as a small plantation can provide the owner with a significant income. Moreover, the need for mechanization of work for several hundredths or so is small.
The bushes will bear fruit for at least 6 years, and often - and all 20 years. Initial landing investments are not too high. You will need to create a trellis for tying and an irrigation system for drip irrigation. To obtain a high yield, you will need to pick up a sunny area with suitable soil.
Did you know? Russia is the largest raspberry producer in the world. It produces 125 thousand tons of raspberries per year.
Raspberries are of two main types: red and black. Both species are represented by deciduous shrubs. The height of the erect prickly stem is about 2 m. Each stem lives 2 years. The root is fibrous. The color of red raspberry fruit varies from pink to rich burgundy. Red is 75% of the total variety of varieties. The fruiting of the first wave of red varieties occurs in late June and early July. Fruiting of black raspberries occurs in July. You may also encounter yellow raspberries - a mutation of red or black varieties.
Cultivation occurs in open ground. But there is also an indoor landing technique - in high tunnels. This allows you to extend the fruiting period and offer berries beyond the usual delivery time, which brings additional income. But it should be borne in mind that additional costs will be required for the construction of greenhouses tunnels. At the moment, there is also a method for growing raspberries in containers, proposed by Dutch farmers.
Industrial Growth: High Yield Methods
Raspberries grow best in sunny areas with well-drained soil. If the drainage is poor and the water stagnates, then this will have a bad effect on the roots. But if you have only clay soil at your disposal, then choose a site with a slope. In this case, water will drain from the site by gravity. Keep in mind that the organic content in the clay section does not exceed 2%. Making organic fertilizers to improve the soil is reasonable, but you will have to fertilize quite often.Soil acidity should be 6.0–6.5 pH.
A great precursor for raspberries is rape. It can also be used as a green fertilizer, if planted in early autumn. Its roots loosen the soil and serve as the necessary organic fertilizer. This technique also helps to control weeds before planting the main crop. Before planting raspberries, the green previous culture is simply plowed together with the soil. Plowing depth - 40 cm.
Raspberries have 2 growth habits: the stem itself is a biennial, and the root system is a perennial. In the first year of planting, new shoots grow. Next year they will enter fruiting.At the same time, buds of new growth are laid on the roots, which will give shoots for next year's harvest. Truncated stems are pruned. Pruning is carried out when the plant enters a dormant period. If you do not cut the stems of the previous year, then they can give a small crop in the middle of summer.
Technically, the fruiting is as follows: as soon as the stem reaches the desired length, flower buds form at its end. By the end of the fruiting season, they will form lower and lower on the stem.
How to choose the best varieties
As for the varieties, you can choose one of the main types:
- classic, with a two-year cycle of shoot development;
Unlike classic varieties, remontant fruits 2 times a year. The first time - in July on the shoots of the previous year, and the second time - from August to October, depending on the variety.
Important! The most important feature of repair varieties — the lack of a raspberry beetle that hits classic raspberries. The reason for this is very simple. — the cycle of development of the beetle ends before fruiting begins.
An additional difference between classic and repairing varieties is that classic ones need to be prepared for wintering and fixed on a trellis during the growing season. A repair room does not need these operations. Varieties such as Atlant, King Penguin, Yellow Penguin, Eurasia - excellently hold a large crop. If you doubt the taste, then the varieties Caramel, Autumn Beauty, Himbo-top are superior in sugar content to their classic relatives.
The best repair varieties:
- When choosing, pay attention to the group Penguins - they are able to provide a crop even in the conditions of a very short summer outside the Urals. In addition, the bushes do not freeze and withstand frosts to -30 ° C. We can say that the variety justifies its name 100%.
- Very interesting Atlant. One bush of this variety will provide you with a harvest of 6–7 kg, and 20 bushes - up to 120–130 kg during the summer. They do not require support and are resistant to disease, which makes them the best for industrial cultivation.
- Grade Orange miracle - These are beautiful orange berries with high organoleptic properties. The variety does not differ in high productivity, but such berries are bought with pleasure by kids. In addition, you can grow even the bushes themselves for sale - they are planted near the gazebos due to their excellent decorative properties.
- Hercules - a very productive variety (4-5 kg of berries from one bush), requiring trellis. Its advantage is its excellent adaptability to different types of soils. Fruiting is stable even with poor agricultural practices. The berries are large in size, slightly sour taste.
Stamp raspberries are known to many under the name "raspberry tree." It is a single shoot on which branches of the 2nd order are formed. As a result, the bush becomes like a tree. Such plants look very attractive. They do not need shelter for wintering and are resistant to disease. The yield of one plant is 5 kg, which is higher than that of most repair varieties. The height of the plant is 120-140 cm. It is quite simple to take care of the standard raspberries, as well as to harvest. But remember that you will need to pay attention to the formation of the bush, pinching the tops of the shoots.
Did you know? Phytonutrients found in raspberries can be effective in treating high blood pressure and joint inflammation. They also have a beneficial effect on the liver.
The main standard varieties of raspberries:
- Mid-late Tarusa with a weight of berries up to 15 g. It ripens from mid-July to mid-August. The bush reaches a height of 1.7 m. To get the maximum yield, it is recommended to leave 7-10 shoots on the main trunk and trim the rest. This will help to avoid thickening. The yield of the variety is up to 4 kg of berries from the bush.The variety is susceptible to attack by pests, but it is able to yield crops even in the presence of an average degree of infection. It can grow in a dry climate, while maintaining productivity.
- Grade Story lives up to its name with productivity - up to 10 kg from one bush. Main characteristics: excellent keeping quality, high palatability, ultrahigh productivity, resistance to diseases and pests.
Propagation of bushes
New bushes are formed due to the ability of the rhizome to creep, occupying new territories. Thus, the bush creates new shoots with buds both at a distance from the main bush and next to it, therefore The first method of reproduction is the division of the main bush. In this case, shoots with a part of the rhizome are separately planted. The most popular method of propagation is seedlings, which grew from basal buds, away from the main plant. Such annual stems are dug up in the autumn and planted separately.
If you did not have time to propagate the bushes in the fall, then in the spring new shoots appear next to the root. They can also be dug up and planted, forming a new bush. In addition, cuttings are harvested and planted in loose nutrient soil to build up the root system. Planting time is May, after the threat of soil frost has passed.
Reproduction of bushes allows you to increase the number of plants and yield without the need to buy new bushes.
Reproduction technique by seedlings:
- Examine the bush and find new shoots that grow from the roots at the base of the bush.
- Dig them out by gently separating them from the mother plant along with part of the root system.
- Dig a landing hole of the same depth as the root system, but 2 times wider.
- Set the plant in the pit, spreading the roots.
- Pour water into the pit.
- Fill the soil, holding the plant so that it is at the same depth that it grew before.
Cuttings are obtained from the main stem. From spring to mid-summer, you can cut off a section of new bush growth.
Propagation technique by cuttings:
- Prepared soil is laid at the bottom of the landing container, which can hold enough moisture.
- The cut end is dipped into the root growth activator.
- Install it in the prepared soil to a depth of 3 cm.
- The container can be covered with a film to increase the temperature of the soil and create conditions that will contribute to the intensive development of the root system.
- Plants are put in place with room temperature and variable lighting.
- For cuttings under the film, you need to organize daily ventilation, removing it.
- Moisture should also be monitored: the soil should not be excessively wet or dry.
- To check if the roots are sufficiently developed, try pulling the plant by the trunk. Rooted, it will sit firmly in the ground. Such a bush can be planted in a constant place of growth.
Growing raspberries according to the Sobolev method
The method was invented by the Kuban gardener A. G. Sobolev. Its essence lies in the fact that the landing is carried out in "high beds". Boxes are made of slate or board, they are filled with soil to a height of 20 cm and plants are planted in this ridge. It is convenient for clay soils. In the box, you can form the soil most suitable for raspberries. The sides will prevent the erosion of the soil by rain or snow.
Water will also not stagnate in the box, which is good for the health of the bushes. The distance between them should be 1 m. This improves the illumination of each bush by the sun, gives them sufficient space for growth and prevents the exchange of pests or diseases if one of the bushes becomes infected.
A trellis is needed to provide support for stems up to 1.8 m high during fruiting. Bushes in this case are less damaged, and caring for them becomes easier. To give stability, the base of the trellis is buried in the ground by 0.8 m.At least 1.5 m in height of the poles should remain above the ground so that the bushes can be tied up at any height.
A trellis is formed from individual poles with a distance of about 1 m. A cord or wire is pulled between them. Individual stems are tied directly in front of them or slightly tilted, giving the bush a fan shape.
Did you know? It is believed that people first began to grow raspberries in orchards in modern Turkey.
Two-way trellis is a supporting structure. It can be made in the form of the letters T or V, Y. Having made the side posts in the form of the letter T, a wire is attached to the upper crossbar T on each side, receiving a double row. The wire can also be pulled in the center of the row. The result is a strip to which the stems are attached.
Extending the distance between 2 rows of wire, you get a trapezoidal structure, with a smaller base at the ground. This design is better illuminated by the sun and is suitable for powerful bushes that give a large number of stems.
Landing: step by step instructions
It is advisable to buy seedlings in a proven nursery. You can plant them from spring to autumn. In regions with cold winters and severe frosts, only spring planting is permissible.
Important! Raspberries can be crossed with other berries to form new species.
- Dig holes up to 40 cm deep and 30–40 cm wide. The distance between them is about 45 cm. The distance between the rows is 100–120 cm.
- Mix the excavated soil with compost or rotted manure.
- Soak the roots before planting in a growth promoter.
- Set the plants in the wells. Fill with soil mixed with organic fertilizers and water.
- Tie plants to the trellis with shreds of soft cloth.
- Cut off the tops (about 20 cm) immediately after planting to stimulate new growth.
Video: Raspberry planting in spring
Most often raspberries are planted in rows. This makes it easy to care for the bushes and harvest. The distance between the rows is left equal to 1 m. So the bushes will be better lit and blown by air. Farmers often neglect the distance between individual plants and make it smaller than 40 cm. Given that a powerful root system will form a bush of 10 separate stems, the planting will be too thickened.
This contributes to the accelerated transfer of diseases from one plant to another and infection by pests, so adhere to the classical planting scheme.To form the beds, they dig a trench 40 cm deep and about 50 cm wide. Ash and rotted manure mixed with soil are laid at the bottom and bushes are planted on this hill.
Site Selection and Territory Organization
Raspberry bushes grow best in bright sunlight - at least 6 hours a day. Soil must be well-drained. Raspberries are self-pollinated, so you do not need to plant plants of different varieties to create pollination and get a crop. Since the bushes need support, they set a trellis before planting, and then make a landing trench and plant the plants.
Soil preparation for seedlings
The plot is prepared in the fall. It is advisable to know exactly the level of acidity and the content of the main elements in the soil: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. To do this, you can purchase a special tester or order a soil test for nutrient content in a local laboratory.Do not use turf soil to improve soil. It may contain wireworm larvae, which are among the most dangerous raspberry pests. Observe crop rotation. Do not plant raspberries after pepper, eggplant, tomato, potato or strawberry. After these crops, spores of fungi can remain in the soil, causing verticillar wilt. To destroy the spores of fungi and pests, such as nematodes, it may be necessary to treat the soil with fumigation with sulfur or other substances.
Bushes are planted with a distance of 50–70 cm between them. The root system of plants brought from the nursery is pre-soaked in warm water for 1 hour to allow the roots to soak in moisture. Then they dig trenches with a distance of 100-120 cm between them or prepare landing pits. For mechanized planting, SSHN3 (SLN1) planters are used, which are attached to a tractor or walk-behind tractor. In this case, the distance between the rows depends on what distance is necessary for convenient maintenance of the plantation by mechanisms. Tentatively, this may be a scheme of 2.0 (3.0) × 0.25 (0.5) m.
The mixture removed from the trench is mixed with organic fertilizers: compost or rotted manure. You can also use balanced mineral fertilizers.
Did you know? In Christianity, raspberries are a symbol of kindness. The red juice of the berries was compared with the blood that flows through the heart, in which there is kindness.
Plantation care before fruiting
Plantation care before fruiting will consist of:
- periodic watering;
- tying bushes;
- pest and disease control;
- preparing bushes for wintering.
In the first year of planting, the bushes do not bear fruit or bear little fruit, but strengthen and develop the root system. On an industrial scale, planting begins with harrowing the soil between the rows. Then new plants are planted and irrigated.After planting, the bushes need periodic uniform watering. It is carried out every time as soon as it is discovered that the upper 3-4 cm of soil is dry. The most effective drip irrigation. It allows you to supply water exactly under the bush, thereby creating an economical flow of water. Watering begins in the spring and ends in late summer. In autumn, the shoots must stand and lignify to comfortably survive the frosts, so they do not need watering.
A month after planting, fertilizers begin to be applied. This process can also be mechanized. You need to make them every 7-14 days. In early July, fertilizer for the classic varieties is stopped, so that the plants go into preparation for winter. And they begin feeding immediately after trimming the bushes in the spring to prepare for vegetation and fruiting.
Preparing for winter will depend on which raspberries you planted. Repairing varieties and standard ones do not winter. Classics are removed from the trellis and bent to the ground so that the kidneys do not freeze. As soon as the soil freezes, the aisles can be covered with a layer of mulch. It will act as an insulator and prevent freezing of the roots.
In the year of fruiting
During the year, the shoots of the first year of growth intensively develop. In the second year they bear fruit. For good fruiting, the soil is kept moist and weeds are periodically removed. If the bushes were wintered, then in spring the branches are tied back to the trellis. They also cultivate the soil between the rows.
Did you know? Yellow, or golden raspberries, is a form of red and black raspberries. But due to the lack of anthocyanins in it — pigments, it acquires a yellow or orange hue.
For the classic varieties, the fruiting branches of the previous season are removed at the beginning of each year. For remontants, branches of the 2nd year for the third year are removed. For standard varieties, only trimming and shortening of branches is carried out. Dried or diseased branches are also removed.
The tops of the shoots are cut to live buds. When new processes appear from the roots, they are either removed or left as shoots of substitution. Removal is necessary in order to direct nutrients to those branches that will bear fruit. This increases the mass of berries by 25%.
The second method of thinning shoots
Pruning raspberry bushes improves their general condition and saves energy for growth. In addition, pruning improves fruiting. In the first year of growth, only branches and leaves develop, and flowers and berries appear the next year. To facilitate obtaining the maximum yield, pruning the shoots will help.
Repairing varieties, giving 2 crops per year, are cut after the last crop is harvested in autumn and the bushes are prepared for winter. You can trim them in winter, before starting new growth. Classic varieties are pruned in winter or fall. In winter, damaged branches and those that are less than 1.5 cm in diameter are also removed.Black raspberries are pruned immediately after harvest to stimulate branching. In spring, the tops of the shoots are shortened by 3 cm. The tops can also be cut in the summer. Lateral branches of black varieties should not be longer than 30 cm.
Fertilizing bushes promotes intensive growth and good fruiting. The most appropriate will be the introduction of balanced fertilizer composition. Nutrient includes nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an equal percentage, for example, 10:10:10. This scheme is not the only one. Fertilization rate before planting: 11 kg / 300 m² of area.
Raspberries grow well in drained soil. Drainage is improved with the help of organics: peat, compost, rotted manure. Fertilizers are applied in the autumn before spring planting of bushes, evenly distributing throughout the area. Top dressing is carried out several more times during the growing season. Fertilization rate after planting: 8–9 kg / 300 m² of area. Do not fertilize near the stems, so as not to burn them.
Important! Vegetation is due to nitrogen. But as soon as the raspberries enter the fruiting phase, leave only phosphorus and potassium as top dressing. Natural source of potassium is wood ash, and phosphorus — superphosphate.
Harvesting and storage
Raspberries will give an excellent harvest in the third year after planting. Repairing varieties bear fruit in the second year. In adulthood, one bush yields about 4-6 kg, depending on the variety. Due to the extremely short shelf life, the berries must be picked as early as possible. Once they begin to ripen, you have to collect them every day.
A good berry should be dense, evenly colored, free from insects and rot. If you handle the crop carefully, then the berries will be in good condition for several days (up to 5). Due to their fragility, they must be collected and packaged in plastic containers without further sorting.. The frequency of collection is 1 time in 3 days. You can make a schedule taking into account weather changes and finish collecting all issues related to the sale of products before collection.
Proper harvesting is very important if you want to get the maximum income. The berries brought from the field should be cooled. This is important for further transportation. Schedule picking berries in the early morning: this will make them more chilled and this will increase the shelf life. Ripe raspberries can be easily removed from the bush one berry at a time.
Buy containers according to customer requirements. So, any type of packaging is suitable for implementation on the market: plastic containers, birch bark containers, boxes, boxes. The volume of containers should be designed for 250-400 g of berries. They will not crush each other during transportation. Enterprises that will process raspberries, and large stores allow packing in larger containers - up to 1 kg.
Did you know? The average raspberry berry contains from 100 to 120 seeds.
Main sales channels:
- wholesale markets;
- the shops;
- processing enterprises.
Since raspberries are a perishable product, it is necessary to solve the issue of marketing products rather quickly. There are two main transportation options: either the farmer brings the berries to the buyer, or offers pickup of already packaged goods. Processing plants are supplied both fresh fruits and frozen. And this allows us to solve the problem with that part of the products that we did not manage to sell in a timely manner.
Diseases and Pests
Like all plants, raspberries can hurt as they develop and grow. If you have chosen the right site, the plants are well lit and well blown with air, then this reduces the likelihood of the emergence and spread of diseases and pests. Adequate watering, timely application of fertilizers and sowing also affect the likelihood of problems.
The main pests of culture:
- Aphids - tiny insects the size of a pinhead, varying in color depending on type. Accumulate on stems and under leaves, sucking plant juices. The presence of ants may be a sign of the presence of aphids. Against them, spraying with a solution of an insecticidal soap or a broad-spectrum insecticide is used.
- Raspberry beetle - a small insect of a nutty color. It feeds on buds and nectar of plants. To combat it, spraying is used with Karbofos.
- Spider mites - small arthropods found in warm weather on the underside of plant leaves. If they appear in large quantities, they reduce the growth and quality of the buds formed for the next season's crop. Against them, both chemical control methods (insecticides) and biological are used. Ticks in a small amount are perfectly destroyed by predator beetles.
Raspberry diseases can be fungal or viral in nature. Viruses are carried by insect pests, so the basis of their prevention is pest control. Plants infected with viruses usually kill and treat the remaining fungicides.
To prevent fungal diseases, the bushes are sprayed with copper-based solutions. It can be 1% Bordeaux liquid, a solution of copper sulfate (0.5%). Modern varieties of raspberries are quite resistant to fungal diseases and, with proper agricultural technology, almost do not get sick.
The main fungal diseases of raspberries:
- Gray moldcaused by Botrytis cinerea is the most serious berry disease. Infection begins during flowering. The main symptom is leaves and fruits covered with fluffy gray coating. The disease is aggravated during wet and cool weather.
- Anthracnose - It is also a fungal disease. It strikes with single spots the stems of the plant. The spots look like ulcers.
- White spotting - appears in the form of brown spots that gradually brighten. Leaves begin to curl and fall.
Raising raspberries in a greenhouse
Indoors, raspberries are grown in a tunnel way. This is a fairly common method.
- Among its advantages:
- more suitable climatic conditions for plants;
- higher air temperature;
- Smooth differences in day and night temperatures;
- reduction in the incidence of fungal diseases and pests;
- reduction of damage to the crop from wind and rain;
- extension of the harvest season;
- the possibility of growing in northern areas with short and cool summers.
In terms of design, a tunnel or a greenhouse can be any. To calculate the size, you need to take into account that at least 2 rows of raspberries will grow in it with a passage between them and a total width of at least 2 m. The height of the greenhouse is about 2 m. The roof can be arched, pitched or gable. Coating - film or from other, more dense, but good light transmitting polymers.
A trellis is installed for each row, and planting is carried out in the same way as when grown in soil. Greenhouses for winter cultivation must be installed on the foundation.They also carry out lighting and heating - they will be needed in order to maintain air temperature and the duration of daylight hours in winter.
Industrial raspberry cultivation is a profitable activity. With the right selection of varieties resistant to diseases and pests, and observing agricultural technology, the yield should be high and stable.