Raspberry Golden Autumn: characteristics, features of cultivation
Someone likes red raspberries, someone likes yellow more, but experienced gardeners prefer to have fruits of different colors on their plot, and it is desirable that their ripening dates do not coincide - this trick allows you to enjoy a fragrant berry throughout the season. When choosing a yellow variety, you should pay attention to the relatively young elite version under the beautiful name Golden Autumn. We will tell you more about everything you need to know about this raspberry.
Golden autumn - raspberries of Russian selection. At the beginning of this century, this elite variety was obtained by the employees of the Kokinsky stronghold of the All-Russian selection and technological institute of gardening and nursery breeding (Bryansk region) by free pollination of the selected form 13-39-11. Famous Russian scientists Ivan Kazakov and Sergey Evdokimenko led the work, and for the latter, raspberry cultivation is the main area of specialization.
In 2001, the sample was assigned its own number 24-129-2, and another three years later it began to purposefully be bred as an independent variety. Golden Autumn was included in the state register of breeding achievements in 2008 and recommended for gardening (non-industrial) cultivation throughout the Russian Federation.
Did you know? Yellow raspberries first began to be cultivated in the 20s of the last century and initially gained a very dubious reputation: its fruits were small, crumbled and broken. However, in terms of frost resistance, these varieties always outperformed the reds, and when American and English breeders managed to produce several elite yellow-fruited varieties, their attitude changed dramatically.
For a decade and a little since the appearance of a new variety on the market, he managed to win many fans, although he cultivated mainly in the central and southern regions of Russia (Belgorod, Bryansk, Vladimir, Voronezh, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Kursk, Lipetsk, Moscow, Orlovskaya , Ryazan, Smolensk, Rostov, Tambov, Tula), Dagestan, Adygea, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Alania, Chechnya, Stavropol and Krasnodar Territory.
In addition, Golden Autumn has perfectly adapted in some countries of the near and far abroad, in particular, in Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Ukraine. The warm climate of Crimea is also great for growing raspberries and allows you to get a very good crop from each bush.
Description and characteristic
Description of the variety should start with a bush. At Golden Autumn, it does not grow too high - only up to 1.5–1.6 m and has from 5 to 7 shoots of medium thickness. In the first year of life, they have a green color and, in the absence of a garter, often lean toward the ground, but next year they become lignified and become erect. The fruiting part of each shoot occupies more than half of its length. The thorns are located at the base of the branches, and their number is small. In the lower part of the bush, the branching of branches is high, but in general, the plant is not too sprawling and quite compact. The leaves have a bright emerald color, their characteristic feature is also pronounced wrinkling.
Did you know? By its chemical composition, red raspberries compares favorably with yellow, even rarer black and violet berries are considered to be even more useful. The first (black) were bred by the Americans, the second (purple) was obtained in Switzerland by crossing varieties with red and black fruits.
The berries have a slight pubescence, an elongated conical shape and a beautiful golden color, justifying the name of the variety. The taste of the fruit is dessert, but light sourness, characteristic of yellow raspberries and explained by the presence in the fruits of a larger (compared to red berries) vitamin C, is added to the usual sweetness. The drupe is small, when bitten, it is almost not felt, therefore children are happy to eat raspberries. The refined aroma possessed by Golden Autumn raspberries is also added to the pleasant and balanced taste. But in general, the tasting score of the berries is not very high: due to the presence of sour notes in the taste on a five-point scale, the fruits are estimated at only 3.9 points.
This variety cannot be called large-fruited either. The average weight of one berry is 4.5–5 g. With proper standardization (removal of excess ovaries) and good agricultural technology, a larger fruit, up to 7 g, can be found on the bush, but such instances are still single.
Due to the dense structure of the berry raspberries of this variety are distinguished by the ability to hold well on a branch and not lose shape when harvested. This fact makes the berries suitable for storage and transportation, and also determines their universal use: Golden Autumn raspberries are equally well suited for fresh consumption, canning, and whole frosting.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Gardeners managed to appreciate Golden Autumn due to the following merits of the variety:
- beautiful appearance, regular shape and bright color of fruits;
- rich vitamin composition of berries (high content of ascorbic acid);
- lack of propensity to shed from the bush and scatter into segments when harvesting;
- long fruiting period;
- ability to adapt to various climatic conditions, large zoning territory;
- excellent transportability and shelf life of berries;
- universal purpose of the fruit.
- Among the shortcomings of this raspberry variety are usually noted:
- not large enough berries;
- relatively low tasting estimates of fruits;
- mediocre productivity indicators;
- average frost resistance;
- lack of drought tolerance;
- rather weak immunity to diseases and pests.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Golden Autumn reacts to drought with a sharp decrease in productivity, therefore abundant and proper watering is a prerequisite for cultivating the variety.
Increased frost resistance this raspberry is also no different. Even with good agricultural technology and competent preparation for winter, the critical temperature for the root system and fruit shoots is frost below -22 ° C. The bush can tolerate more severe weather conditions (lowering the temperature to -30 ° C), but only if such cooling does not last long and is not accompanied by sharp transitions from severe frost to thaw.
Important! In a personal homestead farm, the advantages of the Golden Autumn are compensated by all the disadvantages associated with its cultivation, but professional farmers still consider cultivation of this variety unprofitable.
Productivity and fruiting
Golden Autumn - A Classic Example of Removable Raspberries. The bush enters the fruiting phase at the end of June or in July (depending on climatic conditions), then after a break by mid-August or early September, the plant begins a second wave of fruit setting, which under favorable conditions, it can continue until late autumn.
Like all repair varieties, Golden Autumn does not differ in record yields. But good care allows you to remove from one plant an average of 2 to 2.5 kg of berries.
Video: Raspberry varieties Golden Autumn
The agrotechnical rules for planting Golden Autumn raspberries can be called standard, but some features must be taken into account based on the climatic zone, within which it is planned to grow a fruit shrub.
There are two options for planting raspberries - in early spring and in the second half of autumn. The bush will winter much easier and then grow faster if it is planted in autumn, but this rule only works if the climatic conditions do not imply harsh and snowless winters with sharp temperature fluctuations. therefore traditionally in the southern regions and the middle lane raspberries should be planted in autumn, and for areas with colder climates use spring planting.
When choosing specific calendar dates within a season, two standard rules should be followed:
- In the spring fruit bushes are planted in such a way that the buds begin to bloom after the plant is in the ground.
- Fallon the contrary, it is advisable to wait for the bush to drop the foliage, otherwise the young shoots that begin to develop after planting will freeze in winter, and this negatively affects the overall winter hardiness of the plant. On the other hand, it is also impossible to be late with planting: the root system of a seedling must have enough time to become stronger in a new place. The best option is to guess the moment when about 3 weeks are left until the first real frosts.
Choosing the right place
One of the main secrets of a successful raspberry - the right choice of place for its planting. It is important to observe several requirements at once:
|Lighting||Maximum and uniform (rows are best from south to north)|
|Optimum groundwater depth||1.5 m (if this parameter is less than 1 m, good drainage or a water drainage system is required)|
|Openness of the site||Raspberries are afraid of strong gusts of wind, so the site should be well protected, but stagnation of air is also not acceptable.|
|Site height and levelness||The lowland is not suitable for shrubs due to the accumulation of cold air masses here, especially in the winter, but at higher elevations the risk of blowing the site by the wind increases. The slope is allowed, but always gentle and, if possible, northern|
|The soil||Light, fertile, with a neutral or acidic reaction. Well suited sandstone, sandstone or chernozem. Clay, sand and limestone, as well as wetlands, are excluded|
|Good neighbors||Onions, garlic, peonies, marigolds|
|Bad neighbors||Tall trees, strawberries, strawberries, blackberries, meadowsweet|
|Good predecessors||Bean, Pumpkin|
|Bad predecessors||Solanaceous, strawberries, strawberries, sunflowers|
Selection and preparation of planting material
When choosing a seedling of a fruit tree or shrub, it is important to follow two fundamental rules:
- The seller must be trusted and have a good reputation (the best option is a professional gardening nursery).
- The place where the seedling was grown should be territorially as close as possible to the point of constant location of the bush (transplant).
Golden Autumn, which is not even characterized by high winter hardiness and drought resistance, is much easier take root in extremely hot or, conversely, fairly cold climatesif it was originally grown under these conditions. At the same time, a seedling brought from afar to a region more favorable for itself has a much less chance of successful development.
The selection technology is simple: the seedling should look absolutely healthy and not have visible damage. The presence of leaves on a young bush is not welcome - through it the plant loses a lot of fluid, and, therefore, may be weakened
Golden autumn, like all repairing raspberry varieties, can be planted at the age of one or two years. In the first case, the bush is 1 or 2 green shoots 30–40 cm high.A two-year-old seedling may have the same height, but its shoots are lignified and thicker (7–8 mm), and the root system is quite well developed. In both the first and second cases, a sign of good viability of the bush is the presence at its base (where the root goes into the trunk) of at least one, and preferably several powerful green buds. It is from them in the future that young fruit shoots will begin to form.
The technology of planting raspberries Golden Autumn is traditional and does not depend on either the season or the age of the seedling. The algorithm looks like this:
- Dig a hole measuring 45x45x45 cm. The above parameters are approximate and can be adjusted depending on the size of the root system of the seedling, as well as the initial state of the earth (the less it is suitable for growing raspberries and the more it needs to be improved, the deeper and more voluminous the landing hole should be) .
- The earth extracted from the pit is divided into two parts: the upper layer will be used in the future, the lower layer is removed as infertile.
- Thoroughly mix the prepared part of the fertile land with organic fertilizer, for example, humus or compost - one bush will need about 10 kg of such organic matter.
- Add to the mixture mineral fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus, for example, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulphate (as potassium top dressing, you can use wood ash, but its amount must be increased to about 400 g).
- A small part of the nutrient soil mixture should be returned to the bottom of the pit and raked to its center in the form of a knoll.
- Set a seedling on the surface of the formed hill and carefully spread its roots along the slopes.
- Cover the pit with the remaining soil, carefully tamping it.
- To form low rims from the ground around the circumference of the trunk area and water the bush abundantly.
- When water is absorbed, mulch the soil around the plant with peat, sawdust or coniferous “backing” (rotten needles mixed with sand that can be collected in the coniferous forest).
When planting several bushes, the standard distance between them should be observed - at least 40 cm should separate one plant from another in a row, and if there are more than one rows, a minimum row spacing of 1.5 m must be ensured
Golden autumn requires the same care as any remont raspberry. The amendment should be made only for the low drought tolerance of the variety and its lack of pronounced immunity against diseases and pests.
In order for the bushes to develop well and bear fruit, it is necessary to ensure the following agricultural activities during the growing season:
- Watering. Watering raspberries should be infrequent, but plentiful. The plant presents the maximum requirements for hydration during the period of active recruitment of green mass (April - May) and flowering (June and then August). At the moment when berries are poured on the bushes, the intensity of watering must be reduced, otherwise the fruits may begin to rot.
- Loosening the soil. The procedure is necessary to retain moisture in the ground and prevent the formation of a dense crust, which prevents the penetration of oxygen to the roots. When using drip irrigation, loosening the soil is not necessary, since in this case the water enters the earth in a dosed manner without forming puddles, and therefore the topsoil remains fluffy.
- Weeding. Weed control is very important because they compete with the fruit bush for nutrients in the soil and, in addition, are the reserves of various infections. You can solve the problem once and for the whole season by mulching, covering the soil around the bushes with a thick layer of peat, sawdust, straw or freshly cut grass.
- Pruning. Trimming remont raspberries should be cut in autumn and spring, leaving only the strongest and youngest shoots.
- Top dressing. Repairing varieties need more fertilizer than regular varieties, but you still can’t overdo it with these procedures. In spring, raspberries are fed with urea, ammonium nitrate or other preparations containing nitrogen, and in the summer, the emphasis is on phosphorus and calcium. To increase productivity in the fruiting phase, it is useful to spray the bush with boric acid (10–20 g per 10 liters of water), in the fall raspberry trees are enriched with organic matter (1 kg of humus or compost per 1 bush), as well as potash and phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, potassium sulfate) etc.).
Harvesting and storage
Dense berries of the Golden Autumn are distinguished by good keeping quality, but to increase the shelf life, the crop must be harvested in dry weather and not washed until use. In this case raspberries can lie in the refrigerator for up to 15–20 days, almost without losing their freshness. However, if the crop is planned to be processed, it is advisable to do this as soon as possible after harvest, since each day of storage of the fruit reduces their nutritional value and increases the amount of waste.
Beautiful and well-kept Golden Autumn berries are perfect for freezing, so if the hostess does not have time to cook compotes and jams, she can prepare for the whole winter in just a few minutes.
Absolutely dry berries should be frozen, and after washing, drying raspberries, preserving its original appearance, is almost impossible. Therefore, for this type of harvesting, it is better to select the purest fruits hanging on the upper branches that can be consumed unwashed.
In addition to traditional methods of harvesting, fine wines and liquors can be prepared from raspberries. Experts argue about the suitability of white varieties for these purposes, but among winemakers there are those who consider such drinks to be a very worthy alternative to classic white wine. In addition, raspberries blend well with other berries, such as currants, gooseberries or cherries.
The low frost resistance of Golden Autumn necessitates a thorough preparation of the bush for winter. These activities include:
- removal of all leaves from each shoot (from bottom to top, so as not to damage the fruit buds);
- cleaning the soil within the raspberry from all remaining organic matter (fallen berries, leaves, weeds), which is a traditional place for wintering pests;
- pruning of all offspring of biennial shoots (annuals of the repairing varieties are not cut, because berries will be planted on them next season), as well as damaged, diseased and weak branches;
- abundant watering of the bush to prevent freezing of the soil (water consumption should be one and a half times the usual rate) - in dry land, the root system is more difficult to tolerate frosts;
- bending all the shoots remaining after trimming to the ground and attaching them with studs.
Important! Raspberries will endure the winter much easier, if not only its root system, but also the aerial part with fruit buds will be under snow cover.
If the climate in the region where Golden Autumn is cultivated implies winters with a lot of snow, the gardener will need to ensure the highest snowdrifts around each bush after the first snowfall. Ideally, the snow should completely cover the branches bent to the ground. In the case of short thaws, it is also important to ensure that no ice crust forms on the surface of the snowdrift (ice in this situation needs to be broken, otherwise the plant will cross over from lack of oxygen).
But at the risk of a snowy or snowless winter, the raspberry should be sheltered from the fall. After the first frosts that the bush must survive undiscovered for hardening, on top of the shoots bent to the ground, lay burlap, agrotechnical fiber (spunbond) or other air-permeable material, and it’s fundamentally important that he be bright.
The edges of the bedspread can be fixed with studs or any yoke, and from above, if desired (depending on how severe the winters are in the area), lay out a layer of organic matter, for example, a foliage leaf. Such Shelter must be removed in early springuntil the "living creatures" wintering in the foliage (mycelium of fungi, pest larvae, etc.) will awaken from hibernation.
Peat, sawdust or coniferous spruce can also be used as covering material. In this case, they can be laid directly on the shoots, without an additional layer
Raspberry grows very quickly without assistance, letting out numerous root shoots. Therefore, when planting bushes, they must be carefully fenced, digging a hedge to a depth of at least 50 cm, otherwise a few years later, a real gardener will have a real problem of capturing the territory not intended for him by the bush. On the other hand, these root shoots are great for raspberry propagation.
Did you know? From a botanical point of view, raspberries are not berries. Moreover, this is not even a fruit, but several dozen fruits firmly fused with each other, each of which has its own bone - the so-called multi-seedling.
Thanks to the superficial root system that the bush possesses, the shoot is very easy to dig out of the ground, after which it is enough to transplant it to a new place using standard technology for planting raspberry seedlings. You can do this during the entire growing season, but it’s better not to choose the hottest and driest time so that it is easier for a young plant to take root.
Another way to propagate raspberries is to divide the bush. Implementing this method is a little more difficult, but when working with elite varieties, which include Golden Autumn, it is used quite often, since the number of root offspring of such raspberries is not so great. The adult plant is carefully dug up and separated with a sharp knife starting from the root into 4-5 parts, after which each of them is planted in a separate hole.
Finally, the most time-consuming method of bush propagation is cuttings. In this case, shoots obtained as a result of pruning are used as planting material. They are soaked in a growth stimulant, planted in a peat mixture and covered with a film, and after the plant has taken root, it is transplanted to a permanent place.
Seed propagation of raspberries in relation to the Golden Autumn is not worth considering. Besides the fact that this business is too troublesome, bushes grown from seeds do not preserve the properties of the parent plant. For this reason, elite varieties cannot be reproduced in this way.
Diseases and Pests
The low immunity of the Golden Autumn to diseases and pests requires the gardener to pay special attention to the issue of preventive treatment of bushes. The procedure should be started in early spring, before the buds have opened, and then another 2-3 spraying should be carried out before the fruit sets.
Important! During flowering, raspberries can not be treated with pesticides, so preventive procedures should be done before flowering begins or delayed until it is complete.
When choosing a drug for processing, care should be taken to ensure that it has fungicidal (antifungal), insecticidal (pest control) and acaricidal (against ticks) effects, since all three types of pathogens can attack Golden Autumn. Some modern remedies (for example, Brunka, Oleuprit, Sulfarin, etc.) allow for comprehensive protection of the bush, although drugs with a narrower focus are more common.
|Fungicidal preparations for raspberries||Raspberry Insecticides||Tick Control Products|
Golden autumn - raspberries, which, with good care, can become the real queen of a summer cottage. This variety does not differ in either large harvest or large berries, but it bears fruit from the middle of summer and, after a short break, almost to the very frosts. Fruits are perfectly stored and can be used in any form, including frozen. But still, for summer residents who rarely visit their personal plots, Golden Autumn is poorly suited: the variety is quite demanding for care, needs regular watering, top dressing, as well as preventive treatments for diseases and pests.