Autumn pruning raspberries
Buttocks are a decoration of any garden. Raspberries, like any other plant, in order to give good harvests of berries, needs constant care. This article is devoted to various methods of autumn pruning of raspberry bushes, a procedure that allows you to get a high yield in the new season.
Should raspberries be cut in the fall?
Raspberries go through a full life cycle in 24 months. During the first summer season, the bush grows roots and fruit shoots, on which the main crop will be formed next summer. Those gardeners who are convinced that “where it is thick, there will not be empty” are absolutely wrong, therefore the bush that is overgrown with shoots will be poor in berries. It is the bushes in which there are few stems that form commodity and tasty berries.
The raspberry tree is prone to overgrowth by young shoots, so without pruning, the plantation will overgrow with many root shoots, up to 10-15 pieces from one root.
Almost no berries are formed in the young growth, for this they do not have enough light and air. After some time, the plants run wild and degenerate, lose variety, the fruits become smaller and lose their sweetness.
Wildness of an excessively thick raspberry is explained by the fact that the plant is depleted, forced to feed many infertile processes, and pests and diseases are rapidly developing in poorly ventilated plantings. This culture has a shallow, but well-branched root system that can spread around the mother bush in a radius of 3-5 m.
Did you know? In England and Ireland, gardeners of past centuries practiced the cultivation of barbed hedges from wild raspberries, with which they protected the garden. In the process of growth, the branches of the planted bushes were periodically intertwined with the branches of neighboring plants, resulting in an impenetrable prickly shield.
Underdeveloped shoots often break out from root buds to the surface, which must be destroyed in order to avoid depletion of the mother plant. Caring for the bushes contains a list of activities. In addition to pruning, thinning, fertilizing, regular watering, it is necessary to monitor the sanitary condition of the plantings.
Caring for a raspberry includes:
- removal of dead, dry, broken, weak and poorly developed stems;
- elimination of excess young shoots that developed from awakened root buds;
- shortening the tops of the shoots to strengthen and develop the lateral branches;
- mulching and watering;
- bending shoots to the soil in winter (in cold climates).
Dates of the procedure in different regions
Autumn pruning is recommended as early as possible. The ideal time for it is the next two to three weeks after the fruiting of the crop. The sooner plantations are cleared of old branches that have completed a two-year life cycle, the better.
Important! It is recommended to buy varietal planting material for laying a new plantation from trusted sellers, who can provide all the information on the methods of pruning this variety, as well as photos or videos where you can see fruiting adult plants.
The branches left for further vegetation will have time to grow stronger before the onset of cold weather, build up a good root system and fall into a dormant period so as to survive the cold without loss. In regions with a temperate climate (Moscow Region, Volga Region), the berry bushes are cut in one of the decades of September, in the south, the timing of such work may shift closer to the end of autumn (mid-end of October).
Video: raspberry pruning
Varieties of cropping
Gardeners practitioners have developed many options for pruning berry bushes. The most popular are: the formation and cutting of branches "according to Sobolev" and the usual pruning.Also, gardeners willingly use double pruning, which ensures a long-term ripening of the crop. Clearing raspberries makes it easy to take care of the plantings in the future.
In autumn, old branches are removed from the raspberry, as well as those having mechanical damage, weakened and frail. Also, during clearing, the interval between the plants left is always respected.
Some gardeners consider the correct autumn pruning of the tops of young bushes, others are categorically against such a procedure and believe that it should be carried out only in the spring. Therefore, this part of the pruning should be done by the gardener, based on his preferences and experience.
Depending on the size of the crop, the interval between the ripening periods of the berries reaches 10-12 days. Such pruning is good in order to get fresh berries to the table throughout the summer. At the request of the gardener, pruning can be done not by two length parameters, but, for example, by four or five.
For example, part of the raspberry is cut to 15 cm, another to 20 cm, the next to 25 cm, another to 30 cm and the last to 40 cm. Experiments with trimming lengths are recommended for owners of large raspberry plantations, this will make it possible Hurry to collect berries and not let them ripen in the bushes.
Video: double pruning raspberries
Very popular in the cultivation of garden raspberries bush cutting according to the method of Sobolev. The technique of this pruning is quite simple and effective, so even beginners in gardening can carry out the procedure qualitatively.
Trimming according to Sobolev:
- The technique is based on cutting in two stages. These stages stretch over time for two years. The branches are pruned for the first time from late May to early June, when the young stems of this year reach 1.5 m in height. The top of each is shortened by 15 cm. The procedure is most conveniently carried out using a sharp garden pruner or a very sharp knife. It is better not to postpone farming, the shoots should be cut off on time, this will help them become stronger and stronger.
- After a few days, additional lateral processes in the amount of 8 to 14 pieces will appear in the upper part of the plant. The processes will occupy almost half the height (top) of the entire plant. More culture this year will not have to be cut off. By autumn, a lateral branch up to 30 cm long will develop from each upper bud, so that each raspberry stalk will resemble a small tree. In this form, the plantation goes on wintering.
- The following spring, at the time when the plants have already blossomed leaves, the gardener performs the next stage of cutting. Well-wintered lateral branches are shortened by secateurs by 15 cm. The top of the plant is not touched, since it was cut last year. Pruning of the lateral branches contributes to their thickening and development of fruit buds. After a while, the bush is covered with fruit twigs (laterals), on which berries are formed and ripen during the current summer.
- The Sobolev method implies a rather rare arrangement of raspberry shoots, since each of them, thanks to spreading side branches, occupies an area of up to half a meter. During thinning, it is recommended to leave strong seedlings with an interval between them of at least 20 cm. For 2 years, the usual raspberry shoot turns into a strong "tree" with many actions and excellent productivity. The ripening of berries on plants that have been pruned by the Sobolev method lasts up to 3 months.
In addition to the pruning technique, Sobolev also proposed his own method of plant garter.Planting bushes in rows, he placed trellis on both longitudinal sides of the berry bed, to which he tied raspberries.
When the garter was observed alternation: one plant was tied to the right trellis, and the next to the left trellis. This method of garter provided plants not only with support during the entire fruiting period, but also with uniform illumination, as well as access to pollinating insects to flowers.
How to trim
Gardeners prefer to trim raspberries in the autumn months, this pruning time contributes to the rapid growth of thick branches and multiple laying of future peduncles. You need to do this by choosing dry and sunny days for work.
The right tools
To cut the bush, garden tools with a sharp metal edge are used. It is important that the cut is clean and even, and that the tip of the plant is in no way soaked. Usually a good garden steel pruner or garden knife is used for these jobs. The cutting edge of the tool should be thin and well sharpened.
Garden tools of the German company Solingen (German: Solingen) have proven themselves well.
Also, a large fan rake, a small three-toothed rake on a short handle (for cleaning the soil inside a number of plants), clothes for working with long sleeves and tight gloves protecting the gardener's hands are required to work.
Technique and cropping scheme
Autumn pruning has significant advantages over spring or summer, as together with old and diseased shoots, pests and their larvae are removed from the plantation. Left in a small amount, young plants will gain additional growth energy, the shoots will become thicker and stronger, it will be easier to accumulate sugar, and fructose, so they will not suffer from frost.
After pruning, gaining access to light and air, mature bushes will survive winter time without damage to the aerial parts and roots, and with the arrival of spring heat without delay they will begin to bloom and begin to form fruit ovaries.
Did you know? Thanks to the work of Russian breeders, varieties of large-fruited raspberries without spikes (Stoleshnik, Pride of Russia and the Beauty of Russia, Maroseyka, Taganka and many others) with berries of yellow, red, black and raspberry color were bred. Thanks to this, gardeners can pick berries without fear of damaging the face and hands with sharp spikes.
The gardener arbitrarily chooses a pruning scheme, observing the selected distance between the bushes and the degree of trimming of the top. But the basic rules for pruning raspberry bushes are unchanged for any chosen scheme.
- The branches of last year are easily distinguished from young branches by the color of the bark and the differences in its texture. Last year's shoots are dry, have a brown bark and a rough surface of the stem.
- When pruning, old shoots are cut flush with the ground. For vegetation leave healthy young, not lignified shoots of light green color.
- If shrubs are planted individually, then 6-7 healthy branches will be left on one plant for vegetation. In the case when the culture is planted in rows, then for each meter of raspberry leaves leave no more than 10 healthy fruit branches.
- At each branch left for subsequent vegetation, the upper part of the stem is cut off. The length of the segment varies from 15 to 25 cm, depending on the strength of growth of this variety.
- The height of the already trimmed raspberries should not exceed 1.5 m.
After the anti-aging and sanitary care, berry bushes will thank the gardener with a full-fledged harvest of fruits in the coming summer. Truncation of the growth point of the fruit branch will allow the lateral buds to develop into full-fledged additional fruit branches, which will increase the expected yield several times.
Video: raspberry pruning in the fall - increasing the yield
Further care and preparation for winter
In autumn, thin, recently emerged shoots are also cut near the ground.They do not have time to gain the necessary strength of growth before the onset of winter, so the green shoots will not survive in the frosty period, and in the autumn they will only extend the life force of the bush. The stems remaining after pruning, as well as fallen leaves and other waste, are taken out of the garden, and then burned.
In the south, raspberries that are not afraid of a small frost are most often grown, so the bushes are not insulated before winter. In the colder and northern regions, raspberry shoots are pressed to the ground and fixed on its surface with the help of long metal studs. Such preparation will protect the shoots from freezing and mechanical damage under the weight of wet snow.
After heavy snowfalls, raspberries pinned to the soil and a space within a radius of 1.5 m from the roots are additionally covered with a snowdrift. Snow will protect from the effects of frost the roots of plants that are not deep in the soil. As the experience of gardeners showed, this is a good protection of plantings from low subzero temperatures.
Thanks to the correct autumn pruning of raspberries, the plants will have time to grow stronger and lay fruit buds before the winter season next year. With the advent of spring, such plants quickly enter the growing season, open buds and begin to bloom.