Spring raspberry transplant to a new place: choosing a place, planting material
Transplanting fruit shrubs is an important event in the process of growing them on the site, especially if you need to propagate plants or bushes that for some reason have reduced their productivity. This article describes the spring transplant of raspberry bushes. What time is better to choose for this and what you should know about the features of this procedure - read on.
Why spring raspberry transplant is more effective
It is possible to transplant raspberry bushes both in spring, and in summer or in autumn, but the choice of a specific time will for the most part depend on the region where the crop was grown and its climatic conditions. Spring transplantation is most relevant for the regions of the Middle Strip and the Northeast regions, where already in late March or early April, the soil becomes quite moist, and there are still very few hot days.
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In addition, at this time it is better to transplant non-repairing raspberries, the roots of which can grow well over the summer season and bring a rich harvest of fruits the next year. Actually, the main advantage of planting shrubs in the spring is more time for adaptation for young plants, which means that with the advent of cold weather you do not have to worry about their safety (by this time the root system will get stronger and the bushes will be able to calmly survive the temperature drops).
Selection and preparation
Preparatory activities always come down to two main tasks: choosing the right planting material and organizing the planting holes in the most suitable place for them. Each action has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account for the most positive result of the work.
Raspberry bushes of almost any variety feel great only in warm and well-lit areas. An exception to this rule is only varietal varieties of culture, the berries of which can be baked in the sun, which is why plants have to be placed in light partial shade. It is good if any structures are placed on the north side of the garden or part of the garden or a hedge is planted that protects the plantations from cold gusts of wind and delays melt snow in the spring.
Important! You should not plant raspberry bushes in places where solanaceous crops, strawberries and strawberries used to grow.
As for the composition of the soil, it should be close to neutral, therefore, on highly acidified soils, it is worth liming, adding lime, ash or old cement for digging, in the calculation of 300-500 g per 1 m² of territory. To prepare a place on heavy clay substrates, you will have to dig a site with the addition of peat, humus or sand, or better, with all of the indicated ingredients, taken in equal proportions.When digging the soil, be sure to remove the remains of weeds and other crops from it, as well as any debris that may adversely affect the growth and development of raspberry plantations. If possible, in the fall, you can plant siderata plants, which, when rotted, will improve all the characteristics of the soil, saturating it well with nitrogen.
Planting holes or trenches are organized approximately 10-15 days before the proposed planting events: the diameter of the hole for adult shrubs should be 30 cm and the depth 25-30 cm, with a distance between adjacent holes within 50 cm (between rows of raspberry stands it is better to leave 1.5–2 m of free space).
If there is already raspberry on the homestead territory and its size allows you to choose a suitable plant for transplanting to a new place, then you should pay attention only to 2-3-year-old bushes, as well as young shoots that can quickly grow. Also, the possibility of raspberry cultivation by shoots, which can also bring a quick harvest of berries, is not ruled out.
Young plants are easier to separate and are characterized by a higher survival rate in a new area. But adult bushes, which have a considerable supply of vital energy, rarely create problems in a new place. Of course, all high-quality selected specimens will always have a healthy appearance, without extra growths on the surface of the cortex, cracks or signs of pest damage.Suspicious areas should be trimmed to healthy tissues, and if the selected bush can be divided, then make sure that each individual stem has several viable roots. Old or weak shoots need to be removed, and before direct planting in a new place, the remaining large branches of the bushes should be pruned with a secateurs to a length of 40 cm, so that nutrients and moisture from the soil are not spent on the leaves and stem part, but in full are received by the developing root system of the plant .
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Young shoots near raspberries are represented by shoots (offspring) emerging from buds, which are located on the roots and are usually located at a distance of 20-30 cm from the base of the bush. They are great for spring transplantation of raspberries, which can be done as early as April. When growing a culture in the middle zone of the Russian Federation, by this time, each shoot will form its own root system, and the shoot itself will reach 15–20 cm in height.To perform a transplant, it is better to choose at least 4–5 shoots located 50–70 cm from the central part of the bush. Carefully dig up the selected specimens, taking care not to disturb the ground ball at the base of the plant. Be sure to remove leaves from the shoots, and then place the seedlings in the holes prepared for them, leaving the root neck at the ground level or deepening it by 1-2 cm.
Substitution shoots that are great for raspberry propagation appear from the buds located at the base of the bush. In the first year of life, young plants form one such shoot, and in subsequent years - 2-3 new specimens annually. Preparing the planting material should begin to be engaged in the fall: completely cut the old branches and leave only 1 or 2 replacement shoots, which immediately tie up to the support.
Important! If the shoots were badly damaged during separation, then the places of cuts must be powdered with chopped charcoal - this will protect raspberry tissue from disease damage.
As in other cases, the remaining branches should be completely healthy and well formed. The thickness of any selected shoot at the base is at least 1 cm in diameter, and its rhizome must necessarily be of a fibrous type, up to 30 cm long. In the winter period, shoots should be spudded, but only so as not to touch the roots lying on the surface.With the advent of spring, the remaining branches are shortened by 10 cm and leave the plant sprouted until the emerging leaves reach a length of 1.5 cm.As soon as this happens, at a distance of 20 cm from the bush, the roots of the mother liquor can be chopped off and removed from the ground ready planting material, carefully removing the remains of old shoots. Further planting of raspberry shoots is carried out in accordance with generally accepted standards.
Based on the area of the infield, as well as the amount of planting material, gardeners also choose a specific method for placing plants on the territory: in separately located pits or trenches.
The patching option for planting raspberry bushes is more relevant for bush propagation at home, while tape planting requires preliminary preparation of trenches. In individual holes it is very convenient to place several single cuttings, root shoots or immediately a bush, always maintaining a distance between adjacent plants of 80–90 cm (50–60 cm may remain between small seedlings).
Single shoots or cuttings are usually placed in trenches, adhering to the distance between neighbors within 40–50 cm. The length of the trench itself can reach 60–80 cm, and the depth of the seat in it can be 40 cm. to fertilize, calculating their rate based on the needs of the bush. For 1 average plant, about 3-5 kg of humus or compost, 10 g of potassium salt, and the same amount of superphosphate will be required. All fertilizers must be sprinkled with a layer of earth and only after that the plant itself should be placed on top.A transplanted adult bush, root offspring or substitute shoots of a separate raspberry bush should have their own lump of land, with which they are sent to a new place. Both with the pitted and with the trench method of planting, the raspberries need to be carefully placed in the recess, Spread well over the entire length, and then fill up the fertile soil removed from the hole and slightly compact it.
Important! At the first watering, at least 3-5 liters of water should be consumed per 1 plant, and the thickness of the mulch should be no more than 5 cm.
At the end of the transplant, it remains only to water the culture and, if necessary, to mulch with a layer of sawdust or peat (this is especially true for areas with arid and very hot summers).
Raspberry care after transplantation
Compliance with the rules for transplanting raspberry bushes on the site is only the beginning on the path to their successful growth and development. The second important component of the process of growing raspberries will be the care of it for all further months after planting in March or April. First of all, we are talking about regular watering of plantings throughout the hot season. Pouring water into the open ground, make sure that it reaches the level of the root system of plants, otherwise raspberries will not be able to bear fruit normally.
As soon as the moisture is well absorbed, it remains only to loosen the substrate and mulch it again, thereby protecting it from the scorching sun. With high solar activity in the summer, it is useful to protect transplanted raspberries with board shields or cardboard sheets installed on the south side from shrubs. As for fertilizers, if they are applied during transplantation this year, they will no longer be needed, and all further fertilizing can be carried out according to the previously used scheme, using mineral or organic substances.
So, a properly performed transplant and a responsible attitude to the further care of raspberry bushes will guarantee their rapid growth and development, as a result of which you can enjoy tasty and healthy berries, which is the main goal of all the work.