Canadian raspberries: selection history, characteristics, features of agricultural technology
Canadian raspberries - a representative of the standard repair varieties. Another name for the plant is a raspberry tree. Its main advantage is a higher yield than conventional classic varieties. About the features of Canadian raspberries, its advantages, planting and care techniques, read further in the article.
The history of breeding standard varieties
All raspberries will fall into one of two main categories: classic varieties with summer one-time fruiting and repairing varieties with fruiting 2 times a year.
Bar raspberries are a new type of plant. It is also considered a bush, but consists of one, thicker shoot that branches out at the top. The formed branches make it look like a tree. From here comes the definition of standard raspberries as a tree. The root system also resembles a tree system and does not creep into the garden. The standard varieties are characterized by larger berries and higher yields.
The stem varieties were obtained as a result of the selection formation of the crown of the repair varieties. But not every variety is suitable for this, but only prone to branching. Its lateral branches pinch at the top. As a result, branching begins and the crown takes on a more rounded shape. During fruiting, the branches begin to bend under the weight of the crop, and you get an umbrella or oval appearance of the crown.
The first standard varieties of raspberries were created at the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery by Professor V.V. Kichina in the 90s of the last century. The first variety created in 1993 was raspberry Tarusa. But Raspberry trees are not officially registered in the State Register at the moment, which means it’s too early to say that a new species of plants has appeared.
Important! It is impossible to grow a tree from a raspberry bush on your own. But it can be purchased in nurseries that are breeding raspberry trees.
Description and Characterization of Raspberry Tree
Raspberry Canadian is a thick and strong trunk without thorns about 2 m high, with a round crown. It is formed during spring and autumn pruning. In this case, the old branches are removed and the lateral branches are shortened by 10–12 cm. The foliage is dark green, characteristic of classic varieties: with a corrugated sheet plate.
It is believed that the fruits of Canadian raspberries are among the juiciest in this series.
The berries are bright red conical, moderately sweet. One bush will bring the farmer about 7 kg of crop, and under favorable conditions and good development of the tree, the yield can be increased to 12 kg from one plant. And this is much more than the yield of classic varieties. Canadian raspberries enter fruiting 2 times a year: in June and September.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of this variety, the following characteristics are noted:
- high productivity;
- resistance to frost;
- large berries;
- unpretentiousness in cultivation and care.
- Among the disadvantages of the variety, the following are noted:
- Canadian raspberries are not always well received on the site, so it is recommended to follow the rules of agricultural technology of these trees.
- With a lack of moisture, the berries become smaller and yield decreases.
- If the site is not sunny enough, then the berries will be less sweet.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Root raspberries have shallow roots. But since there are many, raspberries can survive the drought. However, berries are more than 80% composed of water and if it is lacking, they will be small. With prolonged drought at the time of formation of the ovaries, the tree may lose some of them.
Did you know? It is believed that although prehistoric people ate raspberries, they began to cultivate it only in the 1600s. in France and England.
Canadian raspberries are very easy to grow. It grows well in various climatic conditions (zones 3–9), withstands frosts up to -26 ° C and is well adapted to them.
Do not forget that raspberries are a plant that prefers brightly lit areas, drained soil and good watering. These are the conditions under which you will get the maximum yield.
Productivity and fruiting
Standard varieties bear 2 times a year. The first wave of fruiting takes place in late June. At this time, the berries ripen on the shoots of the second year of growth. The second wave begins in late August or early September. At this time, the shoots of the first year of development bear fruit.
The total amount of berries that can be collected from one tree is 7-12 kg. It depends on how fertile the soil is and how much water raspberries received in the process of fruit development. The mass of berries is not stable and also depends on moisture. The average weight of the berry is 7 g, the maximum is 9 g.
Did you know? To stimulate fruiting, you need to carry out pruning in a quality manner, and then you will get a more significant crop and larger berries. Uncut trees may be late with fruiting by 1–2 weeks.
Since raspberries are a perennial plant, it is important to properly prepare the soil before planting in order to provide yourself with the maximum yield. Raspberries grow best in well-drained, alkaline, loamy soil with an acidity level of 5.5 to 6.2 pH.
If there is no site with such soil, make raised beds. This is a structure that consists of a wooden or plastic box with a wall height of about 30-40 cm. Nutritious drained soil is poured inside the box and a tree is planted. The box prevents the spread of soil under the influence of water and snow, while maintaining the optimal soil composition for plant growth.
Raspberries are often planted at fences so that they are covered from the north wind. The plant can grow well on hilly terrain, on an elephant on the south side
Plant bushes in early spring as soon as the soil is warm enough for further cultivation. Summer planting is allowed, but spring is preferable.. Raspberries planted in spring take root better and produce more berries in the first summer.
Important! To protect against pests, plant marigolds near a tree. Most harmful insects do not tolerate their essential oils.
Choosing the right place
Choose the sunniest spot for planting raspberries that you have. If parsley, garlic, dill, onions, and legumes grew on it, then they are good predecessors. Poor tomatoes and potatoes will be bad. It is also not worth planting a plant in the area on which another raspberry used to grow. Such soil already contains spores of fungi and larvae of insect pests, which will have a negative effect on the development of seedlings.
Selection and preparation of planting material
A good seedling for planting should have a straight trunk. If you scrape the bark with your finger, then it should have a green bottom layer, indicating that the seedling is viable. The root system should be fibrous, powerful and consist of several larger roots and masses of filiform roots.
The roots of plants sourced from nurseries are usually dry. They can be soaked for 1 hour in warm water in order to improve their contact with the soil and the possibility of the plant getting nutrients from there.
Be sure to dig through the soil, removing all weeds. The digging depth is up to 40 cm. Bring rotted manure to the site in the amount of 2 buckets per 1 m². The soil does not contain much organic matter by itself. But precisely organic fertilizers allow bushes to receive nutrients gradually, over time. If there is no organic matter, then fertilize with synthetic fertilizer. You will need about 100 g of ammonium nitrate, 50 g of superphosphate, 50 g of potash fertilizers per 1 m² plot.
Did you know? Raspberries can be crossed with other berries, getting new varieties of plants. So, in recent times, Yezemalin (from crossing blackberries and raspberries) has been bred.
Planting a bush is as follows:
- In the prepared area, make a hole up to 40 cm deep. Its diameter should be larger than the diameter of the root system.
- They establish a support in it, to which the seedling will be tied for stability, until it takes root.
- Straighten the roots and set the plant in the center of the hole. It is important to establish the roots at the same depth at which they were originally planted.
- Gently begin to fill up the hole. When it is half full, pour water.
- Then add the rest of the soil and compact it.
- Mulch the near-trunk zone with sawdust, wood chips or pine needles.
The plant should always be well watered, and its near-trunk zone should be free of weeds.. Mulching helps solve both of these issues. Weeds do not germinate through a layer of mulch, and water does not evaporate under the sun. The presence of moist soil creates excellent conditions for the growth and development of the plant. Irrigation rate - 10 liters of water per 1 bush. Frequency - 1 time in 5 days.
Once every 2 weeks, the plant needs to be fed. Use balanced fertilizers with the same percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in solution, for example, 10:10:10. You will need 2 kg of fertilizer per 30 linear meters of plantings. They are brought in before the start of the growing season, and then periodic feeding is carried out.
A tree is cut at the end of winter. Features of pruning depend on the stage of development of the tree. After planting, the top is shortened by 20 cm. About 6 lateral shoots develop over the summer. In winter, these shoots are shortened, creating the conditions for further branching. In addition, they begin to clean up all the deflated shoots and those that were damaged by wind or frost. Use a sharp cutting tool and do not forget that raspberry shoots are quite fragile.
Video: Trimming and care for standard raspberries
Harvesting and storage
Raspberries cannot be stored for a long time - no more than 5-6 days in the refrigerator and no more than 2 days at room temperature. At the end of June, when the bulk of the crop ripens, the berries can be eaten fresh or processed and closed for the winter. Ripening lasts for 2 weeks, and berries are picked every other day. In autumn, at the beginning of September, the second wave of fruiting sets in. It accounts for less than 30% of the crop, because at this time the shoots that have grown in the current year bear fruit.
If raspberries are harvested for delivery to a store or a processing plant, the berries are picked on a dry sunny day, starting in the early morning. Chilled berries are stored longer. The collection is carried out in plastic containers up to 400 g. In the same containers, the berries will be sent to the recipient.
Repairing standard varieties do not need wintering of branches, so preparing for winter includes harvesting leaves in the garden and digging the soil. If there was a mulching layer under the tree, then it is removed, because pests can winter in it.
The most vulnerable part of the plant is the roots. To protect them from frost, after the soil freezes, a new layer of mulch is laid on it. It will serve as isolation for the root system. Do not put mulch on unfrozen ground. Under it, increased humidity will form, which can lead to root proliferation.
Important! Raspberry — the most tender berry. Wash it just before meals. Washed berries can go bad in just a few hours.
If you decide to propagate the standard raspberries, use basal shootsif it appears, since one of the differences between the standard varieties is the lack thereof.
If there are no root shoots, then you can cut off several young shoots of the first year or lignified seedlings of the second year of development and plant them in a container with a nutrient mixture. This method is called cuttings. As soon as the seedling takes root and begins to grow, it can be planted in a permanent place.
Diseases and Pests
Repairing varieties are less likely to be attacked by pests. This is due to the fact that they bloom and begin fruiting 2 weeks later than the classic varieties, therefore, they do not come into contact with the main pests that managed to lay eggs on earlier plants.
To prevent the appearance of potential pests at the flowering stage, the bushes are treated with Actellic. He acts on raspberry beetles, ticks and stem flies (gall midges). After harvesting in the fall, fallen leaves and weeds are removed from the garden, and the soil is also dug up. This allows you to destroy wintering insects.
But the largest raspberry pests are birdstherefore, during fruiting, the tree is covered with a special bird net.
The most common diseases are considered fungal. They arise due to the dense plantings, high humidity and insufficient lighting. The main measures for the prevention of diseases are a correctly selected site and timely thinning of the crown.
The main diseases:
For the prevention of diseases, spraying bushes with Bordeaux liquid 1% before budding.
It is profitable to grow standard raspberries. After all, its yield is much higher than classic varieties. In addition, it is extremely decorative, unpretentious in care and undemanding to the climate. Using simple tips for caring for the raspberry tree of the Canadian variety, you will provide yourself with an abundant harvest of delicious and sweet berries.