Raspberry varieties Balm: characteristics, features of cultivation
Through the efforts of breeders, the number of raspberry varieties is constantly growing. Each new berry variety differs from others in terms of ripening, appearance, and taste. This variety allows you to freely choose a variety suitable for every gardener, but despite this, many prefer the old, proven varieties. These include Raspberry Balm, which will be discussed later in the article.
Raspberry balsam was cultivated in the Kokinsky stronghold of the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. The process was supervised by Doctor of Agricultural Sciences I. Kazakov.
From 1968 to 1980, the professor and his team bred about 20 varieties of ordinary raspberries and about 30 repairing varieties - among them Balm, which was obtained by crossing Rubin of Bulgaria and Newburg.
In 1981, the variety was sent for testing for registration in the State Register and in 1993 it was fixed in the register with regionalization in Eastern and Western Siberia, the North Caucasus, North-West Russia, the Middle Volga, the Central Black Earth Region, Volga-Vyatka and Central regions.
Did you know? In 2006, VSTISP received a patent for raspberry variety Balsam.
According to the data entered in the State Register, you can add this portrait of a plant:
- A sprawling erect bush, reaching 1.8 m in height.
- Secondary shoot formation, 15–20 shoots per 1 m². A little overgrown root.
- The shoots are covered with stiff short brown spikes with a wax coating.
- The foliage is wrinkled, large. Its top is opaque, dark olive, the bottom is pubescent, bright green, dotted with small spikes along the central vein.
- Relatively large berries of a wide cone-shaped form ripen on the shoots of last year, weighing on average 2.6–2.8 g. All of them are homogeneous (rarely found small), with dense pulp, easily separated from the fruit bed, but do not crumble from the bush. Their color is dark purple, dark crimson. Their aroma is weak, the taste is sweet and sour, pleasant. Sugar in berries contains 9.3%.
- Raspberries ripening medium early.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of Balm include the following:
- high appreciation of the taste of berries;
- early ripening of fruits;
- high yielding capacity;
- crop stability;
- excellent transportability;
- good winter hardiness (in areas with little snow, does not need shelter);
- The disadvantages of raspberry balm are minor:
- need plentiful top dressing;
- sourness of berries;
- yield inferior to modern hybrids.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The specified variety was bred with emphasis on cultivation in cold regions, so it tolerates low temperatures quietly - it does not dry out and does not vypryvaet. It also tolerates drought favorably, but not for a long period.
Productivity and fruiting
In the State Register, the plant yield is above average. One productive bush during the fruiting period gives 2.5–2.7 kg of berries. 60–80 centners (7.5–9.1 tons) are harvested per hectare. If the growing conditions are as favorable as possible (climate, soil, care), then you can get 10.5-12.1 t / ha. Bushes bear fruit together.
If you want to plant a healthy raspberry on the plot and get a good harvest from it, then you need to know some of the features of planting a crop.
The bush planted in the spring with the arrival of stable heat begins to release buds, wasting all its efforts on the development of the aerial parts.
As a result, due to a weak root system, the receipt of nutrients from the earth will not occur in full, and the plant may die from a lack of food.
Choosing the right place
The site selected for planting should have the following characteristics:
- well lit;
- located on a hill or a slope;
- protected from gusts of wind;
- groundwater does not come close to the surface and moisture does not stagnate.
If the soil is moist and heavy, it is advisable to form a hill (15–20 cm) on the bed to reduce soil moisture.
Selection and preparation of planting material
It is advisable to buy seedlings for planting in proven places or in special nurseries.
They should have such signs:
- bright stem with 2-3 buds;
- well developed roots;
- the absence on the stem and roots of symptoms of the appearance of diseases and pests.
Before planting, even the healthiest and strongest seedling must be inspected for the presence of rotten or dried roots. If such appeared, then they need to be cut off.
In order for the rooting process to happen faster, and the likelihood of developing fungal diseases to be minimal, the roots of the young plant need to be soaked for several hours in a growth stimulator and treated with fungicides according to the instructions. Before planting, the stem is cut so that about 40 cm remains.
The selected site is prepared in advance. During spring planting, all work is carried out in autumn, and in autumn, one month before the expected planting date. The bed is dug up and fertilized. Heavy clay and sandy soil is mixed with peat, compost, hay dust, dry leaves.
Raspberries are planted in several ways:
- classic - leave between 0.7–1 m between bushes;
- tape - between the holes at least 2 m;
- Bush - after 1.5 m.
The rows need to be oriented from north to south.
The landing algorithm is the same in all cases:
- A hole is dug out on the site in terms of the size of the root system of the plant.
- The pit is filled with warm water.
- When the water is absorbed, the seedling with spread roots is placed in the hole.
- They gently fill it with earth. Each layer is compacted so that there are no air voids. The root neck is left at ground level.
- The soil around the bush is mulched with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Raspberry Balm loves plentiful watering - spend it during periods of active growth of greenery and fruiting. The plant will receive a sufficient amount of moisture if the ground near it is moistened to a depth of 30–40 cm. To do this, pour 30–40 liters of water per 1 m². Moisturization is carried out weekly. After watering and rainfall, the soil must be loosened to ensure air access to the roots.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself
Use mineral fertilizers according to the following rules:
- nitrogen-containing - must fall into the ground before the beginning of June;
- from June to autumn, potassium and phosphorus complexes are used.
Due to the fact that the variety is tall, it needs a mandatory garter.
There are such ways of carrying out that procedure:
Needs Balm and pruning. In the fall, the offspring branches are removed and burned, and in the spring, weak shoots are removed, while 8-10 strong shoots remain. Even in the spring, until mid-May, it is necessary to pinch the top of young shoots that have reached 70–90 cm — this will make them branch better.
Important! Once every 10 years, it is imperative to update the raspberry tree and change its location so that the crop is always stable.
Harvesting and storage
The ripening of berries of the described variety begins in late June. The peak falls at the beginning of July. This is a rather short period, but due to the fact that the berries ripen together and must be harvested every other day, the yield is significant.
If such a quantity of fruits does not have time to be consumed fresh, then they can be sold (marketability of berries at the height) or prepared for the winter in various ways, including freezing, drying, preservation.
Did you know? The location near the raspberry branches apiary increases crop productivity by 60–100%, and all thanks to the fact that the flowers of the plant "look" down and the bees can pollinate them even in rainy weather.
Preparatory work for wintering should begin in mid-summer, when the harvest is completed:
- Thawed branches are cut off at ground level.
- They make potash and phosphorus fertilizers. You can also other trace elements, but not nitrogen, otherwise the shoots will grow. In order for the plants to receive the required number of elements, it is enough to add 0.5 l of ash per 1 m², scattering it in the garden.
- Before the onset of frost in regions with frosty winters, shoots bind and bend to the ground. Before the snow falls, they need to have time to cover, using spruce branches, straw or agrofibre. In snowy areas, you can not cover the raspberry, but only mulch the trunk circle.
Raspberry Balm is propagated by the following methods:
- Dividing the bush - it is divided so that on each part there are 2-3 strong, developed shoots and a strong root system.
- Lignified offspring. Their formation comes from the adnexal buds on the roots of the plant. For breeding, you can take an annual offspring growing at a distance of half a meter from the uterine bush. He digs out in the fall.
- Green shoots. In the spring, when the green offspring reaches a length of 10–20 cm, they are dug up and planted in a new place. Only young plants growing at a distance of 40 cm from the bush are suitable. The healthiest and strongest are selected, with a lump of earth.
- Root cuttings. At a distance of 40 cm from the bush, the soil is carefully torn and a subordinate root with branches is dug out (the more there are, the better). All roots with a diameter greater than 20 mm are cut into pieces containing 1-2 buds. Cuttings are planted in loose fertile soil.
Diseases and Pests
The presented variety has stable immunity to most diseases and pests, but if the care rules are not followed, raspberries can be attacked by the troubles described below:
- Raspberry beetle. It feeds on fruits and leaves. It is eliminated mechanically (loosening the soil, removing the affected parts of the bush) or by treatment with Intavir and Iskra.
- Spider mite. Starts in raspberries, where there is no proper care. It becomes noticeable with the onset of spring - weaves a web on the leaves. For preventive purposes, weed and affected foliage should be regularly removed. In the fight fungicides are used.
- Purple spotting. Attacks young shoots, covering the leaves with rusty spots. An excellent remedy for adversity is Bordeaux liquid.
For preventive purposes, you must follow all the rules for caring for the plant, pruning in a timely manner, as well as spring treatment of planting with Bordeaux fluid. Raspberry Balm is a wonderful winter-hardy variety for private cultivation. He is not demanding in care, and his gardener will please his harvest.
Network user reviews
I grow about 6 years. I consider crop stability to be the main advantage. It does not cry out, it is winter-hardy (I always bend it for the winter - Western Siberia after all), the summer heat is not an obstacle to it either. It ripens together and the taste is excellent, sweet and sour, not dessert of course, but it suits me, in the freezing too. The weight of the berry is about 3 grams. It does not give much growth. For all the time she didn’t get sick, this year the truth cut several stems - purple spotting overcame, almost all varieties were ...