When and how to trim raspberries?
Raspberry refers to shrubbery-bearing plants that add young shoots annually, which greatly thicken the plantation, which greatly affects the quantity and quality of the berry. Regular pruning of bush raspberries, which is performed in a certain way several times a season, will help to avoid such problems. Consider a detailed description of plant pruning technology, why do this and how many centimeters to cut.
Do I need to prune raspberries?
Pruning raspberries must be done if you want to get a strong healthy bush that abundantly bears fruit. The procedure takes a lot of time, especially if carried out according to all the rules, but it is necessary for all bushes from the second year of growth in open ground.
Inexperienced gardeners who have just started raspberry cultivation or people who are not interested in the intricacies of proper pruning, often practice removing only old and dry shoots in the fall, and cutting the tops in the spring, believing that this is enough for the bush to function normally.
Did you know? Russia is the world record holder for raspberry cultivation; about 200,000 tons of berries are produced there annually.
However, such care is not enough to get a healthy bush that will bear fruit in full force. A large number of delayed shoots for the bush is an extra cost of their useful substances for food, so young shoots, which usually give a higher yield than 2-4-year-old shoots, often get less nutrition and weaken.
Optimal procedure time
Trimming the bush should be 3 times a year: in spring, summer and autumn, but the duration of the procedure greatly depends on the region of cultivation, so we will consider at what time it is better to clean the plant.
Depending on the time of year, parts of raspberries should be removed taking into account the growing region so that the plants can recover.
In the fall, the procedure should fall on:
- August-September in the middle lane;
- August in the northern regions;
- early to mid-October in the southern regions.
Spring thinning is performed before the plant begins to move the juice in the ground part, but the air temperature will already be stable, without severe frosts:
- in the southern regions, this is the period from late March to early April;
- in the northern regions, this is the period of the initial numbers of May;
- in the middle lane, this is the period from mid-April to early May.
According to the lunar calendar 2019
The main part of the procedure falls on the autumn period, therefore, before carrying out the removal, it is better to coordinate the planned time with the lunar calendar. It is better to form a bush by next year during the waning moon, when it is in phase 3 or 4. At this time, the juices in the shoots of the plant move to the roots, which positively affects the further development of the plant.
Consider the most favorable days for thinning raspberries in the fall in 2019:
- September: 5, 7, 9, 20, 28;
- October: 1, 4, 5, 10, 29, 31;
- November: 3, 7, 8, 11, 28, 30.
Important! You should not choose to crop the full moon, new moon or 23 lunar day.
It is important not only to trim raspberry bushes in time, but also to take into account weather conditions. Even a correctly performed procedure, in compliance with all deadlines, may not give the desired result if you select the wrong day.
Depending on the season, the weather for trimming is selected accordingly:
- in spring pruning is carried out when the air temperature stabilizes, the day is chosen as warm and sunny as possible, without precipitation and the risk of nightly large temperature drops;
- summer pruning involves a dry sunny day in the evening so that the heat of the day does not destroy the weakened cropped shoots;
- in the fall the bush is cut before the onset of severe frosts, a warm sunny and dry day is chosen so that the weakened shoots do not die or suffer from dampness under the influence of pathogenic fungi and bacteria.
Bush pruning technology
The pruning procedure, depending on the purpose that the gardeners are pursuing, will be different, so we will consider in more detail how to prune and thin out raspberries on their own.
How many centimeters
If pruning a young plant is done for the first time, then immediately after planting or before planting a seedling in open ground, it needs to be trimmed at a height of 30–40 cm to stimulate the growth of new fruit shoots. Old, dry or diseased shoots are removed completely, under the root. Young fruit shoots, which are pruned for better fruiting and stimulate the growth of large tasty berries, are shortened to a height of 120-150 cm.
Is it possible to trim under the root
Under the root, only repair raspberries are cut in preparation for wintering and the old fruit shoots of ordinary raspberries to rejuvenate the bush. Ordinary raspberry pruning under the root will not survive, therefore, pruning is carried out only after making sure that there is a repair variety on the plantation.
Important! When trimming repair raspberries under the root, every cropped centimeter is important, so you need to try to cut the stems completely, even going a little deeper into the soil.
How to thin out raspberries
When seasonal pruning of the bush, choose one of the methods described below:
- With the help of a horticultural sharp and clean secateurs, it is necessary to trim previously non-bearing, weakened, dry or diseased parts of the plant to the height of the first healthy kidney. Annual shoots that strongly thicken the bush need to be cut, the "right" bush will have no more than 8 young stems. Those shoots that remain must be cut to ¼ length so that each shoot is no higher than 150 cm.
- The second simple method of pruning involves dividing all the shoots of the bush, requiring pruning into 4 groups: the first group includes dying old stems that are removed as short as possible, at the very bottom of the soil (if you leave too high a stump, the plant will be very susceptible to the development of diseases). The remaining 3 groups of young shoots are conditionally divided by the height of the crop: the stems of the first group are shortened by 15 cm, the second by 30 cm, the third by half the length.
If in the summer a lot of young offspring begin to appear around the bush, it is necessary to thin out the plant immediately to avoid thickening until the end of the fruiting period. All shoots that grow around the bush more than 20 cm from other fruiting stems should be cut completely.
Important! You need to choose the appropriate method from the presented types of scraps yourself, each of them is checked by gardeners and gives a good result in the end.
What will happen if you do not do the procedure
The raspberry bush has a strong and well-branched root system, so it quickly takes up not only the territory allocated for the raspberry plantation. This situation leads to a decrease in the amount of yield, the formation of small berries, and can also destroy weaker plants that grow nearby. Proper pruning of raspberries allows you to stop the uncontrolled growth of rhizomes.
All raspberry shoots have a 2-year life cycle, that is, after planting in the soil for the first two years, young shoots actively grow and bear fruit, but soon their aging and lack of fruit occurs on the 3rd year of cultivation. Instead of unsuitable shoots for fruiting, new ones appear, the bush thickens greatly, while the old stems consume most of the nutrients, which leads to reduced yields, the appearance of small berries or the complete absence of fruits if pruning is not done.
The raspberry bush, which is not cut in time, is very sick, is more often affected by pests, is a hotbed of fungi, from which growing plants suffer nearby.
Did you know? There are varieties of raspberries with berries not only red, yellow and black, but also purple. The variety was bred in Geneva in 1896, crossing the red and black varieties.
Thus, raspberry pruning is an important event that gardeners conduct for normal growth and fruiting of the crop. Features of the procedure are described in detail in the article and must be taken into account in order to properly form a bush.