Varieties of raspberries for the Moscow region, the middle strip with a photo and description, especially agricultural technology
Raspberries are widespread in private gardening. The plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, good yields, has medicinal properties, and the fruits delight with a pleasant taste and aroma. However, when planting a crop on a site, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the region, since the same variety can take root and bear fruit in different climatic zones in different ways.
Raspberries for the Moscow region and the middle zone: features, useful properties
Historical sources indicate that the cultivation of raspberries in the territory of modern Moscow region has been carried out since the time of Ancient Russia. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, who appreciated the beneficial properties of the plant, organized gardens for its cultivation, reminiscent of modern selection bases. And for good reason, raspberries have taken root well, because the climatic conditions are completely conducive to this.
Did you know? Raspberry cultivation — one of the longest, as it has been purposefully grown as a fruit crop for more than 2 millennia.
Today, many species are bred, including large-fruited, common, and remontant varieties. Each of them may well grow in the suburbs and the middle zone, giving a good harvest with proper care. Varieties have their own distinctive characteristics, but they have one thing in common - the undoubted benefit to humans. Moreover, for health purposes, all fragments of the plant are used.
Berries have hemostatic, antitoxic effects. The content of salicylic acid in them causes an antipyretic effect, and a large amount of copper helps to get rid of depression. Regular use of the product strengthens the immune system, improves skin complexion and the digestive system.
Raspberry leaves are used in the treatment of viral diseases. For example, a tincture of leaves can significantly alleviate the condition of herpes. Raspberry stalks cut in autumn can be dried, broken into small fragments and added to tea leaves. Taking such a drink during the winter will significantly strengthen the immune system and help with colds.
It is noteworthy that raspberries do not lose their healing properties after heat treatment, so in winter you can deal with colds with raspberry jam.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of growing raspberries in the suburbs are favorable climatic conditions. This is a region with a temperate continental climate. There is sufficient moisture in the soil, summers are warm, but not arid, and in winter there are no severe frosts. Adequate snow cover provides protection to wintering plants.
In the southwest direction, the soils are more fertile, saturated with nutrients. The disadvantage is the “poverty” of land with an increased level of acidity in the northeastern regions, which raspberries do not like. Before planting the crop in open ground, it is necessary to saturate the soil with organic fertilizers, add limestone or ash to neutralize excess acidity.
The best promising varieties, how to choose the right
Among the variety of varieties, each has its own characteristics, both in terms of biological characteristics and taste. Conventionally, they can be divided into four main groups: large-fruited raspberries, ordinary, remont and standard, in each of which you can determine your leaders.
Important! When choosing a plant for planting, one should take into account its ability to tolerate frosts to -25 ... -30°C, as well as the duration of fruiting.
It’s clear from the name that the berries of these varieties will differ in their massive dimensions - sometimes the weight of the fruit reaches 20 g, and the yield of one bush is about 6 kg. The guarantee of a good harvest is, of course, the right agricultural technology, but selection work is no less important, because it was thanks to her that this wonderful large-fruited raspberry appeared half a century ago.
PatriciaThis is one of the most productive varieties, leading the rating of large-fruited. A characteristic feature of the plant is a long fruiting period, starting in early June and continuing until mid-August. One bush gives about 6 kg of juicy fruits of bright red conical shape.
The variety is able to withstand frosts to -34 ° C, not prone to disease. The bushes are quite lush, up to 1.8 m high, often used by gardeners as a decoration of the landscape.
The fruits of this variety ripen in mid-June, and are pleased with their large-fruited (the mass of one berry reaches 14 g) until the end of August. One shrub gives about 5 kg of berries.
Tall (up to 2 m) bushes have beautiful decorative foliage with a corrugated surface and serrated edges. The culture tolerates frosts well, but for the winter it is necessary to cover it.
A fairly common variety, which has gained popularity among gardeners with its unpretentiousness, frost resistance and immunity to diseases. Large fruits of non-bearing shrubs have a pleasant aroma and incredibly sweet taste due to the high percentage of sugar content.
Every year, the bush bears fruit from early July to mid-August, giving up to 6 kg of fruit. For the conditions of the Moscow region, Nizhny Novgorod region and the entire middle zone, this is a very promising variety.
Wonderful golden amber ripe fruits with good care can reach a weight of 12 g, have a pleasant sweet taste with a slight acidity, which neutralizes sugary.
Powerful developed bushes give up to 10 shoots per season, reaching 2-meter height. Often these plants are used in landscape design. From one such shrub you can collect about 4 kg of fruit.
Bushes of raspberry ordinary in the first year of vegetation let out annual shoots on which buds appear in the fall, and in the spring new fruit branches grow on them, giving a summer crop. Immediately after harvesting, the offspring of the stems is recommended to be trimmed, allowing the young shoots to develop next spring.
Did you know? In order to bring raspberry berries in marketable form to their destination, it is better to pluck the fruits from the bushes along with the peduncle, which can be removed immediately before selling or eating.
There are a lot of varieties of ordinary raspberries, they are divided by the ripening dates of the crop, which can be either early or late. Experienced gardeners plant different species on one site in order to enjoy the fragrant fruits for a long period.
Early raspberries begin to bear fruit in early June. At the same time, individual species delight the ripened fruits for so long that they can be confused with the remont. The disadvantage of early ripe raspberries is more meager fruiting, but most gardeners are not scared.
The most effective are such varieties as:
- Meteor. Medium-sized berries have a weight of about 3-4 g, have an incomparable taste and aroma. The fruits are quite dense, so they tolerate transportation well. The first crop is harvested in early June. Bushes - slightly spreading, give about 3 kg of fruit each.
- Lazarevskaya. Plants have high resistance to cold and frost, grow a large number of shoots. During the fruiting period, which lasts from mid-June to early August, the bush gives 2.5-3 kg of juicy ruby berries with a mass of each of them up to 3.5 g.
- Lashka (Lyashka). The relatively new variety, bred at the beginning of this century, was fond of the inhabitants of Russia, first of all, for the juicy sweet bright red fruits that have tall (up to 3 m) bushes from the beginning of July. From one “representative”, up to 4 kg of berries are harvested per season.
- Sun. The variety is characterized by an active pace of vegetation immediately after planting in the ground. Purple berries have a special acidity, which is why they are often used for desserts. From the bush, on average, about 2 kg of fruits are obtained, each weighing up to 5 g. The plant is suitable for planting as a green hedge, as it can bear fruit in one place for up to 15 years.
Raspberry gives the first fruits at a later date, but the harvest is much more abundant than in the early varieties. The ripening period is in mid-July. It is worth paying attention to such varieties as:
- Crane. Raspberries are characterized by good survival and winter hardiness. During the season, one bush gives about 2 kg of sweet berries weighing 3-3.5 g. Ripening period - July - August.
- Freemen. Plants take root well in different climatic regions, resistant to drought, cold and disease. Berries weighing 5 g have a sweet taste with sourness. From one bush, up to 4 kg of excellent fruits are collected, which do not crumble and tolerate transportation well.
- Balm. Although culture does not possess outstanding qualities, it is a great success in the territory of central Russia due to its exceptional adaptation to weather conditions. Fruits from late June to mid-July with small, up to 3.5 g berries, but with a rich taste and aroma.
Late-ripening varieties delight with the harvest in August - the bushes are abundantly covered with juicy fruits, which are harvested until mid-September. A distinctive feature of the varieties is high frost resistance. A good choice would be:
- Brigantine. Raspberries of this variety ripen at a time when most varieties have already bred - in early August. The yield of bushes is low - up to 2.2 kg (average weight of berries is about 3.5 g), but this does not stop gardeners, because culture makes it possible to saturate the body with a large complex of vitamin on the eve of the cold weather.
- Taganka. Late-ripening self-fertile variety produces quite weighty aromatic fruits weighing up to 12 g with dense pulp, which ensures trouble-free transportation. The root system withstands frosts down to -20 ° С.
Hybrid varieties that can bear fruit for several months have gained considerable popularity and have taken root well in the territory of the Moscow Region. A crop is capable of producing one or two crops, depending on how the autumn pruning was done. If there is only one crop, it will be later, but plentiful. Repeated fruiting is already more meager.
The promising variety is characterized by stable high-quality yield. The bright yellow fruits have an average weight of 10-12 g, and in the harvest year they receive up to 12 kg of sweet and sour berries from the bush. Raspberry fruits up to frost, after which the shoots are completely cut off.
Raspberries are suitable for growing not only in the homestead, but also for commercial purposes, as they are easily transported, are immune to diseases, and the fruits are quite large. From 1 hectare, up to 130 centners of fruits are harvested.
The mass of dense, very sweet berries of this shrub reaches 11-12 g each, with one instance of the plant yielding up to 4 kg of fruit. The culture is frost-resistant, and the crop can be harvested even with small frosts (up to -3 ° C).
The name of the variety comes from the characteristic luster of the skin of the fruits, the maximum weight of which reaches 7.5 g. The plant bears fruit until late autumn, when the gardens are empty of leaves, tolerates cold, and can yield crops even with small frosts.
The variety has an extended fruiting period. The first crop is harvested in July, and the second in October.The fruits of the variety have a tangible acidity, therefore, are preferred for cooking compotes, jams, etc.
Sweet and sour berries, weighing up to 4.5 g, have excellent marketability and suitability for transportation. Raspberry is unpretentious to growing conditions and is able to stably bear fruit in regions with adverse soil and climatic conditions.
Stambovas include raspberry varieties that have a tree shape, that is, with thickened strong trunks, which allows you to do without a garter. With proper care, the plant will look like a young tree with several stems, reaching a height of 2 m.
The variety is represented by tree-like bushes with straight stems. The main advantage of plants is large berries up to 16 g in weight, with juicy sweet flesh. Productivity - up to 4 kg per bush.
Under favorable conditions, varietal bushes give up to 6 kg of fruit. The average weight of berries is 7-8 g, although it can be twice as much. One of the best options for use is fresh, as the fruits have amazing taste.
The variety combines all the best qualities: a solid size of berries (up to 12 g with dimensions of five cents), low maintenance, high taste and good preservation of the fruit.
The peculiarity of the variety is dry dense berries that do not “let in” the juice even when squeezed. Bushes do not shine with special productivity (up to 3 kg of berries), but are quite suitable for amateur cultivation. In central Russia bear fruit from early August to mid-September.
The culture is resistant to low temperatures, so it is grown in different regions. It has elastic juicy berries of bright red color, the weight of which is about 4 g. Raspberry has excellent immunity to various ailments.
Features of agricultural technology
Planting and caring for raspberries is quite simple and does not require special efforts from the owners. Culture can even grow in a groomed state and bear fruit. However, if you want to get a really good harvest of delicious juicy berries, it’s not enough to “just” plant raspberries, certain rules must be observed throughout its development, namely:
- Watering. Raspberries do not need frequent watering, and in the rainy season they can be completely abandoned. In the dry period, and also at the end of spring (before flowering), the bushes are watered in such a quantity that the soil is moistened 30–40 cm in depth. It is desirable that the water was settled, not cold. The best option is drip irrigation, in which warm moisture is distributed evenly throughout the area. It is necessary to water the culture before winter. Mulching helps to effectively maintain the proper moisture level in the soil.
- Fertilizer. Raspberries are very fond of organics. In spring, you can feed it with a solution of bird droppings or dung infusion. In the fall, complex fertilizers are applied or an ash solution is prepared (400 g per 10 liters of water) and raspberries are poured with them at the rate of 3 liters per bush. Every year (in October) they feed with humus or peat - 2 buckets per bush.
- Loosening and weeding. The area where raspberry grows needs to be regularly weeded so that the weed does not form darkened areas, creating favorable conditions for the life of the pests. Loosening is also beneficial during which the soil is saturated with oxygen.
- Spring pruning. In the spring, you need to inspect the bushes and cut off all frost-stricken and diseased stems, leaving only those that began to grow earlier - they should be shortened by 10-15 cm. This procedure will significantly improve productivity.
- Preparing for the winter. After the last harvest, the bushes are cut, leaving 5-6 shoots, the earth is dug up to a depth of about 8 cm and the area is cleaned of fallen leaves. The branches are bent to the ground and fixed. You can additionally cover them with coniferous branches or agrofibre.
If you adhere to the above points, you can avoid damage to plants of various kinds of diseases and get a quality crop in gratitude.
Diseases and Pests
Raspberry is considered an unpretentious plant, but this does not mean that it does not suffer from ailments. Most often, the culture is sick due to improper care - the absence of weeding and pruning, contamination of the plot with weeds, rotting leaves or its overmoistening have negative consequences for shrubs.
To avoid this, it is necessary to follow the rules of cultivation, monitor the condition of the soil. As a preventive measure, you can use spraying culture Bordeaux liquid. This procedure is carried out 4 times per season - when the shoots gain growth up to 20 cm, before and after flowering and at the end of the harvest.
If the plant is still ill, it is necessary to understand what kind of disease it is and take urgent measures, since complete infection of the shrub will lead to its death. Most often, raspberries suffer from diseases such as spotting, powdery mildew, rust, anthracnose, chlorosis, gray rot. They can be identified by the unnatural yellowing of the leaves, gray, black and brown spots, thinning and drying of the shoots. Fight against diseases with the help of fungicides, the best of which are recognized Nitrafen, Poliram DF, Azofos, Previkur, a solution of copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of settled water).
Pest insects either harm the plants themselves by devouring the crown, buds, root system, or transfer viruses from diseased plants to healthy ones. If you notice a deterioration in the condition of the bushes, you must carefully examine them. Having discovered suspicious "guests", such as aphids, spider mites, gall midges etc. (photos and descriptions of insects can be found on many Internet resources), immediately get rid of them. In the fight, you can use chemical solutions - insecticides, for example, Karbofos, Aktellik, Confidor.
As a preventative measure against the appearance of pests, raspberry need to be processed twice a year "Karbofos" - before the buds bloom and after harvesting. It is important to correctly observe the growing conditions - then the culture will delight with its good health.
Harvesting and storage
Most modern varieties have the property of good preservation of ripe berries on the bushes. Harvest fruits in a shallow, spacious container. You can take a basket with a wide bottom or a basket - such wicker containers have openings that create excellent ventilation.
Harvesting is best in the morning when the dew comes down. It is advisable to do this in dry weather, as wet berries will quickly lose their attractive appearance.
Raspberries are better stored in a cool place (refrigerator, cellar). Berries can be frozen. And although during defrosting they lose their attractiveness somewhat, their taste and nutritional qualities will be preserved. Jam, stewed fruit, jams, toppings for pies, sweets and homemade tinctures are also cooked from raspberries.
With the right choice of variety and proper care, the raspberry garden in the suburbs will be the real pride of the owners. Frost resistance and productivity of the above crops will provide an opportunity to enjoy the surprisingly pleasant taste of the fruit for a long time, and make many preparations for the winter.