How to prepare raspberries for wintering: terms, rules, steps
Any plant growing in an open area needs good preparation for a difficult winter period, and raspberries are no exception. To get a good harvest of juicy berries in the summer, you need to take care of the bush not only with the onset of the growing season, but also in the fall. In our material we will talk about how to prepare raspberries for wintering.
How to care for raspberries in the fall and properly prepare for winter
Autumn care for raspberries is a set of measures aimed at preparing bushes for a safe wintering and developing immunity against diseases. During this period, it is necessary to clean the territory, trim and fertilize the plants, and also think about protection against frost.
Dead and fallen leaves often become a cozy wintering place for various pests that hide in deciduous cover, like in a blanket. When preparing raspberries for winter, you should carefully remove the fallen leaves and burn them, weed them near the bushes.
Leaves remaining on branches should also be removed. Do this with tight mittens so as not to be pricked by spikes. Foliage should be removed from the bottom up, otherwise there is a risk of kidney damage. Leaving old greens on the branches is quite dangerous - with the onset of rainy weather, the leaf plates will begin to rot, as a result of which the flower buds covered with them will become diseased.
Digging and fertilizing
Together with the foliage, it is necessary in the autumn to clear the soil of mulch, which was there during the summer. After that, they dig the soil, but do it carefully - the root system of raspberries is quite superficial and easy to damage.
You can dig a shovel into the ground to a distance of not more than 20 cm between the rows and 10 cm in the rows themselves. Together with digging, the soil is mulched and fed.
On the eve of winter, raspberries need to be thoroughly “drunk” - this will help the culture survive the winter more easily. Moisture-charging irrigation has a distinctive feature - it uses a much larger volume of water, which needs to nourish a layer of land of 1-1.5 m.
Before proceeding with the procedure, it is necessary to check whether the soil is waterlogged on its own. To do this, dig a hole up to half a meter deep, extract a piece of soil and squeeze it in your hand. If the soil gathers in a tight lump that leaves a wet imprint on a sheet of paper, the amount of moisture supplied must be reduced. On average, the norm is 3 buckets per bush.
Important! Excess moisture in the soil can cause air displacement. As a result, the roots will begin to choke and die.
You can water the soil in different ways. On flat terrain, the usual method of watering is suitable using the same buckets or a hose with a pump. For landings on a slope, drip irrigation is an ideal option, which will ensure uniform absorption of moisture by the soil. The system is quite simple to make using a hose with holes laid out around each bush.
The optimal time for wet-charging wetting of raspberries is considered to be the period of leaf fall, when the air temperature drops to + 2 ... + 4 ° С.
Autumn pest control
Insects that have settled raspberry trees before the onset of cold weather, most likely, decide to stay on it for the winter, causing irreparable harm to the plant. Gardeners need to carefully inspect the culture and get rid of unwanted "guests."
To destroy harmful insects, raspberries can be treated in autumn with a solution of Fufanon. Dilute it in a proportion of 10 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water.Bushes must be sprayed, spending about 1 liter of composition per plant.
Another good tool is Actellic. It is prepared according to the instructions: 2 ml (1 ampoule) in 2 liters of water. Bushes are sprayed at the rate of 1.5 liters per 10 m² of area. In autumn, it does not hurt to take care of the destruction of moss and lichen, watering the soil around the culture with a solution of copper sulfate.
Features of care in the fall and preparation for winter
In addition to cleaning the area where raspberries grow, it is necessary to pay great attention to the shrubs themselves. They should be trimmed, fertilized and made protection that will protect the culture from freezing.
Autumn pruning raspberries
The main stage of autumn care for raspberries is the correct pruning, with which, in fact, it all starts. For work, it is necessary to prepare a pruner and tight gloves so as not to prick.
Important! Pruning bushes must be carried out with a sharp secateurs. If you use blunt blades, the places of cuts will be difficult and long to heal.
Why should be cut
Usually raspberry bushes grow very much, letting out a lot of shoots. In the fall they will need to be removed. This is done in order to preserve a healthy bush and percentage yield. If you do not cut raspberries at all, in a couple of years you will receive only 25% of what a bush that is systematically cut can give.
The fact is that most of the stems will still dry and die by spring, but during their wintering, they will take away moisture and useful elements from the soil from the culture. A large number of shoots will affect the quality of the berries, making them weak and small.
Mandatory removal of diseased stems, which can become a real hotbed of fungus and other diseases. Most often, ailments develop in dense plantations, where the distance between the bushes is less than 1 m, and between the rows less than 1.3 m. This is especially observed during the rainy season with increasing humidity.
Branches damaged by equipment, gusts of wind, due to human negligence can also weaken the plant. They also need to be removed, because they will consume a lot of energy, and they will practically not produce berries.
It is best to start pruning raspberries during the period when the main part of the foliage falls. Timing may also depend on the raspberry variety. So, in the early grades, pruning is performed in mid-September, and in later varieties - in mid-October. The main thing: to carry out the procedure before the onset of real cold weather.
Did you know? One of the peculiar methods of pruning is digging bushes with a bayonet shovel. The bush is dug to a depth of 25 cm, eliminating all unnecessary shoots directly from the root. After this procedure, the bushes look much neater and do not grow to the sides.
How to prune bushes: instructions and methods
Cutting off the shoots, remove all the old stems under the root, which are easy to identify by dark color and numbness. No more than 5–6 young stems are left on the shrub, pruning them 20 cm from the apex.
Cut off fragments must be removed from the territory and burned to prevent the spread of dangerous pests. Often, to propagate a successful variety of raspberries, gardeners use shoots - you need to dig up the required amount near the bushes and transplant to the prepared territory.
Features cropping remont raspberries for the winter
There are raspberry varieties that can yield twice a season. Such crops are called remodeling. Harvest from them can be harvested in the summer and autumn. Before pruning, the first thing to decide is what kind of crop is needed.
If one large harvest is expected, raspberry can be cut completely, removing all of the shoots, almost at the root. When two crops are expected to be obtained, annual stems should be left on the bushes, having cleared them of foliage. It is worth considering that the yield will be less plentiful.
Double cropping: advantages and disadvantages
Not so long ago, experienced gardeners invented a way, how to increase raspberry yield by almost 50% - for this you need to carry out double pruning. The essence of the procedure is that, in addition to the usual autumn “haircut”, it will be necessary to shorten the bushes in the spring and summer, when the height of the stems reaches 90 cm.
At the end of May – beginning of June (depending on the growth rate), shoots are cut 10 cm from the top. Now, lateral stems will start to grow from the sinuses and the top of the branch will become a fan-shaped form. Double cropping does not end there. At the end of September, lateral shoots need to be pinched - they will become thicker, filled with useful substances and, therefore, will be able to overwinter safely.
This pruning method also has its drawback - increased thickening of shrubs, which can cause poor ventilation, the occurrence of diseases. The solution will be to increase the distance between the bushes to 1.5–2 m.
How to feed the crop in the fall after pruning
Autumn top dressing is very important for the bush - it provides the plant with good nutrition, so that the crop feels comfortable during the winter.
Important! Mineral fertilizers are best poured into grooves 20 cm deep, formed around bushes at a distance of 30 cm. Thus, top dressing will be better absorbed by the root system.
Fertilize raspberries with the following compounds:
- Manure and compost - fertilizers are applied once every 3 years at the rate of 4 kg of the composition per 1 m².
- Chicken droppings - A very concentrated fertilizer that must be applied to the soil with caution. It is best used in a liquid state. The solution is formed by diluting droppings with water in a proportion of 1:20, and evenly watered the soil in the raspberry.
- Peat - contribute annually in the autumn period in the process of mulching. A layer of about 10 cm is formed from it, which improves the soil structure and protects the root system from cold weather.
- Wood ash - applied after harvest, when it is important to neutralize the acidity of the soil and fill it with potassium. Each plant is sprinkled with 100 g of ash around the root system.
- Siderata - plants that inhibit the growth of weeds (clover, mustard). In the fall they mow and dig along with the soil. Such fertilizer will increase soil fertility.
- Mineral fertilizers - used if organic were used in the previous year. When choosing a composition, pay attention to the fact that it contains phosphorus and potassium, and the nitrogen content is minimal. Potassium will also provide frost resistance to the crop.
Preparing shrubs for the winter
When the shrubs are already trimmed and fertilized properly, you can begin to create for them a kind of "bed" in which plants will be warmed during frosts.
Mulching the soil is one of the most important stages of autumn care. Mulch provides plant roots with protection against frost and at the same time nourishes them with fertilizers. The material is sawdust (rotted) or vegetable tops of annuals.
The mulching material is laid in a layer of 10 cm. In this case, you can fertilize the soil at the same time, adding organic top dressing, peat.
Shelter for the winter
Although there are varieties that can survive frosts without additional protection, it's still not worth the risk - it is better to organize an additional shield. For this, agrofibre or branches of coniferous trees that cover plants are ideal.
Before laying the material, the raspberry branches should be tilted to the ground and fixed.
Between the shelter and the soil it is better to create a small air gap by placing empty plastic bottles or installing small pegs. If we are talking about a fiber shelter, its edges are fixed on the sides of the site, using brick, stone or other heavy material.
Snow serves as a kind of protection for raspberries from freezing, so experienced gardeners deliberately fill the area with a layer about half a meter. To preserve shelter, shields of dry stalks of corn, sunflower or tree are erected near the raspberry.
It is worth noting the benefits of meltwater for raspberries. In anticipation of the thaw, snow cover is additionally sprinkled with sawdust, enriching the soil.
Did you know? At the end of the XIX century. Swiss scientists brought raspberries with purple fruits, crossing bushes with red and black berries.
Dipping raspberries: how to do it right and when
Raspberry bushes bend on the eve of frost. There are many ways to do this. Most often, the branches are tilted to the ground and fixed with brackets. You can also tie a cord along the bushes and attach the stems to it.
It is important to consider that the height of the stacked shoots should not exceed 40 cm so that the crop does not freeze. Looking out shoots from under the snow can provoke the death of the kidneys, since the snow cover has the lowest temperature in the upper layer.
Features of preparing remont raspberries for winter
Preparation for winter remont raspberries has its own characteristics. In particular, if we talk about bushes on which all the shoots are cut completely, then they do not need to be bent and insulated, with the exception of mulching.
In addition, total pruning eliminates the need to irrigate plants once again with chemicals, fighting pests. Otherwise, the plant prepares for wintering according to the same rules as ordinary raspberries: the area is cleaned, the soil is fertilized and moistened.
It is better to remove the shelter from raspberries after the snow has completely melted and the belief that severe frosts will not come. As a rule, this period falls on the beginning or middle of April. First, the coating material is eliminated if it was used, and then the branches are straightened.
Preparing raspberries for winter can significantly extend the life of the crop and improve productivity. In addition, such procedures do not present any particular difficulties and will be possible even for beginner gardeners.