Raspberry varieties Indian summer: characteristics, features of cultivation
Variety Indian summer bred by Professor Ivan Vasilyevich Kazakov. The uniqueness of this species is in double fruiting (in summer and autumn). Hence the name. Breeders made a real breakthrough and were able to create the first repair variety in the post-Soviet space, bringing a stable double crop of berries that have excellent taste, but require special attention from summer residents. The intricacies of planting and further care can be found below.
Active work on the cultivation of repairing varieties was carried out by the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture Selection and Technology. In 1973, Russian breeders, led by I.V. Kazakov, managed to develop an extraordinary variety. This was made possible thanks to the crossing of the American repairing species September and hybrid No. 12-77.
The new species was distinguished by a rich taste, winter hardiness, early ripening of fruits and bright color. On its basis, many new forms were created, and in 1995, Indian Summer was included in the State Register. Thanks to this, the new product immediately gained recognition in the southern regions of Russia.
Did you know? Based on the botanical classification, raspberries are not a berry at all, but a multi-species. The fruit itself is formed from a variety of fused fruits with seeds.
Externally, the repairing appearance is almost no different from simple. But with careful care, it is able to produce crops twice a year. The bushes are quite high and not very sprawling. According to gardeners, raspberry branches can stretch up to 2 m in height.
The main forces of the plant are aimed at ripening more fruits, and not on the growth of shoots. The type of high-yielding berries is characterized by some features. It is better to study them before buying, in order to choose exactly the Indian summer variety and not to confuse it with any other.
So what you should know:
- perennial bush, non-sprawling, 100-150 cm high;
- smooth, thin stems covered with stiff thorns;
- shoots are slowly formed (10-15 pieces per m².);
- leaves are green, smooth and slightly wrinkled;
- the shape of the berries is cone-shaped, with elongation along the edges, and the weight of one fruit is 2-3 g;
- tasty, red, juicy pulp sweet to taste;
- 0.1 kg of fruit contains 30 mg of vitamin C.
Important! Raspberry does not tolerate transportation. After harvesting, it is recommended to immediately consume or process it.
Advantages and disadvantages
Of course, the main advantage of this hybrid is its maintainability. The plant is able to bear fruit on both annual and biennial shoots. But will the crop be large in extreme weather conditions for the plant?
Drought resistance, frost resistance
This variety is quite winter-hardy and is able to survive frosts down to –30 ° С. The main condition for such endurance is snow or artificial winter cover. As for drought resistance, raspberries can tolerate it quite poorly.
It is recommended to cultivate the plant in areas with milder climates or pay maximum attention to watering during the heat, as the surface root system can seriously suffer from a lack of moisture.
Productivity and fruiting
Variety of the repairing variety is characterized by low productivity, but this deficiency is compensated by double fruiting per year. The average total weight of fruits from one bush is 1 kg, and with proper care - about 3 kg. An important plus is that in conditions of high humidity, the berries do not lose their rich taste, but shoots are formed quite slowly (even under favorable conditions).
To raspberries grow seamlessly on your site, you should carefully study the rules of planting, the choice of location and optimal conditions.
Raspberries can be planted in spring and summer. But at this time she spends a lot of energy on rooting. therefore the best landing period is in September or October. When planting 20-30 days before the onset of stable frosts, it will have time to take root and prepare for wintering.
Choosing the right place
Bushes love sunny and windproof areas. An ideal place is considered adjacent to the house or buildings, so that the raspberry tree is protected from drafts throughout the year. Do not plant raspberries in the lowlands, where there is a high risk of stagnation of moisture and cold air. The aquifer should not be closer than 1.5 m to the surface of the planting soil. Otherwise, the roots may begin to rot.
It is forbidden to plant in areas where potatoes, tomatoes or eggplants were grown. The root system of dessert berries emits special substances that cause soil fatigue. Therefore, gardeners are recommended to plant bushes in place of the previous ones only after 5-7 years.
Important! Raspberries of this variety bear fruit only in well-lit areas. But it is impossible to plant it too close to the buildings. After all, any shadow threatens with a decrease in yield and a deterioration in the quality of the berries themselves.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Only high-quality seedlings can give a good harvest.
When buying them in nurseries or bazaars, it is important to follow the rules for choosing a healthy plant:
- Developed fibrous root system, without mold.
- Flexible and clean (without signs of lichen, mold) branches 8–10 mm thick.
- It is recommended to buy two-year-old bushes in containers with a mature root system.
It is important to carry out the correct preparation of planting material. The further rooting and active growth of raspberry depends on this.
The recommendations of experienced gardeners are as follows:
- Immediately after the purchase, it is better to lower the plant into purified water, so it is saturated with the right amount of moisture.
- On the roots, it is necessary to remove damaged and rotten roots.
- Trim the tops so that 3-4 pairs of leaves remain on them.
- In order to prevent fungal diseases, it is recommended to treat the seedlings with a growth stimulator or fungicide.
If raspberries were bought on the eve of frost, it’s too late to plant them on a constant place of growth, but it’s better to dig them in the garden: make a groove 15 cm deep with an inclined edge on which the plant is laid and covered with leaves and earth. So the bush can safely winter.
If clay prevails in the area, then you should take care of improving the growing conditions. For example, you can dilute the soil with sand (1 bucket / m²). Sandy areas need fertilizer and watering. Otherwise, the cultivation will not give the desired crop.
Did you know? According to legend, the first raspberry garden was planted by the great ruler and founder of Moscow, Yuri Dolgoruky. The raspberry was so large that wild animals were found in it, including bears.
Landing methods are as follows:
- Rowing. The row spacing is 150–200 cm, and the distance between the bushes is 0.5–1.0 m.
- Tape method. Pits of 50 × 45 cm in size are prepared. With such a planting, the bushes are placed in 2-3 rows with a distance between them of 60–90 cm. The free space between the ribbons is 1.5–1.8 m.
- Bush planting. Digging trenches 60 × 45 cm in size. Between them leave 95-100 cm. 2 bushes are placed in one hole. The distance between the bushes may vary depending on the size of the plants.
After planting, it is important to sprinkle the seedlings with earth, firmly pressing it to the roots. Then water the plants with 5-7 liters of water. If it is not possible to devote time to daily watering, then it is better to make a mulching layer with the help of humus, peat or sawdust. This will help retain moisture.
For the first two years, the repair grade does not require much effort.Care manipulations are almost the same as other varieties. However, the Indian summer berry is quite demanding.
The conditions under which a stable crop can be achieved will be discussed further:
- Watering. This culture is quite hygrophilous. Its roots are on the surface, from which they suffer in dry times. Watering is recommended to be carried out daily or at least 2-3 days. If it is not possible to visit the site every day, then it is better to use a drip irrigation system or ask neighbors in the country to monitor the raspberry. This will help keep the gardener calm and plant health. With a single weekly watering, the water flow for each bush should be 3-4 buckets, after which it is necessary to cover the soil with a layer of mulch to retain moisture.
- Loosening. The roots of the plant need oxygen. That is why after each irrigation or rain the soil is loosened. During manipulations, it is important to be extremely careful so as not to damage the root system. The maximum depth of cultivation is 5–7 cm.
- Mulching. After loosening, it is important to organize a mulching layer (peat, hay, humus). It will allow you to keep moisture, warm in the cold and prevent the appearance of pests.
- Top dressing. In June or early July, emphasis is placed on fertilizers with a high nitrogen content, and mineral fertilizers are used in early August. The most popular organic feeding in the form of chicken droppings and water (1:20), manure and water (1:10). 15 g of nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfide, diluted with water, are excellent for mineral fertilizers. This dressing is enough for 2-3 bushes. In the fall, a mixture of superphosphate (25-30 g) and potassium sulphide (up to 30 g per m²) is used.
- Pruning. Manipulation is carried out depending on how many times a year it is planned to harvest. If fruiting is expected twice a season, then complete pruning is not carried out. It is worthwhile to “take off” only the seedling shoots, and leave the young ones and trim the tops to 1.2-1.5 m. If you want to harvest only in autumn, the branches are cut to the root at the end of each year.
Propagation of this repairing variety is atypical. Best Indian summer lends itself to vegetative division.
Important! It is recommended to obtain planting material for raspberry propagation only from mature adult plants from 3 years old.
There are several popular ways:
- With the help of green cuttings. At the beginning of summer, young shoots with a height of 5 cm are cut to the rhizome and placed in a prepared container with soil at an angle of 45 °. After moisturizing, the plant is covered with a film. The optimum temperature of the "greenhouse" should be maintained in the region of + 25 ° C, which will help raspberries to take root. It is important to take care of regular watering and ventilation. After 2 weeks, after the appearance of the roots, the ground should be fertilized with the Ryazanochka complex (2 g / 5 l). After a week, the shoots are planted according to the 10 × 30 cm pattern, and in the fall they move to the designated place.
- Using root offspring. At the end of the season, roots get out of the ground and are divided into pieces 10 cm long. The landing site is fertilized and watered abundantly. After planting the cuttings, it is important to cover them with a layer of mulch. In spring, the raspberry is covered with a film until the first green shoots appear. After removing the shelter, it is necessary to ensure proper care, and in the fall place on the prepared site.
- Applying the division of the bush. The bush is dug up and divided into 4-5 parts. It is important not to damage the roots and shoots, and shorten the stem by 45 cm. Planting takes place immediately on the area reserved for raspberries, after which the bushes should be abundantly watered.
Diseases and Pests
Indian summer is quite unstable to diseases. A number of preventive and treatment measures are as follows:
- Powdery mildew affects leaves and berries due to stagnation of moisture. It appears white plaque on the plant.It is eliminated with a solution of "Topazoma" or "Fundazole".
- Raspberry beetle larvae eat the fruits, which negatively affects the yield. In this case, use a solution of potassium permanganate or the drug "Iskra" to destroy pests.
- Sheet mosaic distinguished by the appearance of white and dark spots. The consequences of the disease are irreversible. The affected area is best removed completely.
- Spider mite destroys the leaves of the plant, eating all the juice. The bush is covered with light cobwebs and eaten holes. You can get rid of it with the help of Fitoverm and Vermiteka.
- Raspberry aphid localized on young shoots. Symptoms are twisting and lethargy of the leaves. It is better to immediately cut the affected part and burn. For the purpose of spring prophylaxis, a solution of Karbofos is used.
Before the onset of cold weather, the soil of the raspberry should be abundantly moistened so that the earth at the roots can absorb additional moisture. After ripening and picking berries, raspberries cut off all branches, leaving only the root. The soil is mulched with a prepared protective compound.
Did you know? Some gardeners use only natural and herbal remedies for prevention. So, in the fight against the stem fly, a tincture of onion and garlic is perfect. This method is acceptable even for bushes on which the fruit is already ripening.
If you plan to get two crops, then the old shoots are cut, and the young ones bend to the ground and are fixed with metal arches. In areas with little snow, it is important to shelter raspberries with agrofibre. In spring, it is necessary to remove the shelter in time so that the plant does not rot.
Double fruiting is permissible only in the southern regions. The reason for this is the large expenditure of shrub forces for flowering twice a year, which is fraught with a decrease in winter hardiness. In the western regions, it is better to grow an annual crop, and after that - remove all shoots. With such manipulations, the raspberry can not be insulated.
Important! Breeders recommend removing the entire ground before wintering.
Harvesting and storage
In the case of cultivation of raspberries with double fruiting, berries will please gardeners at the same time in early summer. The first fruiting period occurs in mid-June or early July.
After a short break, raspberries will begin to bear fruit in September. If you grow raspberries only on annual shoots, then the harvest will be much larger, but the bush will begin to bear fruit in August.
Harvesting is best done in clear, dry weather. The berries are removed with the stalks to prevent spoilage of the product. Remember that this culture does not tolerate transportation, therefore, after collecting it, it is better to immediately consume or process it.
Drying raspberries is considered an excellent storage method. In glass jars, it can be stored for up to two years. The main thing is to provide coolness and to protect from sunlight. You can grate fresh raspberries with sugar, put in plastic containers and store in the refrigerator. A good option for getting vitamins, delicious desserts and drinks in the winter is freezing berries in plastic bags.
The fruits of Indian Summer are not super-large, and plants require careful care. But the opportunity to enjoy a sweet berry twice a year, to get very tasty fruits often attract advanced gardeners. And let this variety not be among the leaders of the repair varieties, but with proper care, it will be able to please the whole family with a beautiful dessert.