Raspberry Zeva (tutimer): features of the variety, agricultural technology
Among the repairing raspberry varieties, special attention is paid to varieties that bear fruit twice a year, they are called "tutamers". This type of fruiting is popular among gardeners with a small plot of land, since the plant provides them with fresh berries for a long period. This is the variety Zeva, bred in Switzerland, to which the article is devoted.
Repairing raspberries Zeva
Raspberry Zeva belongs to the European repair varieties and it has its own varietal features.
What is the Tutaymer variety?
Not every remont raspberry can produce two worthy crops per season. Old varieties are characterized by low fruiting in autumn. The selection does not stand still, and now varieties with two abundant waves of fruit return have been bred. Varieties that give a full-fledged crop twice during the same growing season are called “tutimers”. Their shrubs have a powerful root system and require a high agricultural background.
Did you know? For the first time, repair raspberries are described in reviews by Maeve and Abercrombie in 1778. Then there were 20 varieties of this variety, and in the 20th century. there were already more than 60 of them.
Such varieties are not cut completely in the fall, but only the offspring shoots of the second year of life are cut. Moreover, they do it in the summer, right after harvesting the first wave of fruits formed on two-year-old shoots. The second wave of fruiting is given by annual branches in late summer - early autumn.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening dates, productivity
Variety Zeva forms mid-sized bushes 1.5-1.8 m high. Shoots grow upright. They are strong and thick, medium spiked. The leaves are large and painted in a light green color. The shrub blooms in May-June with white flowers. The first fruiting is observed in July, and the second usually occurs in the second half of August and stretches to frost. Fruits ripen along the entire length of the shoots.
The berries are medium in size and usually weigh about 2.6 g, but there are specimens reaching 5 g. They are painted in a deep dark red color and have a pronounced smell, dense pulp and a harmonious sweet and sour taste.
Like most European repair varieties, Zeva gives 50-60% of berries to frost, so she has the best yield in regions with long summers and warm autumn. The highest productivity, reaching up to 5 kg per bush with good agricultural technology, is shown from the third year of life. The variety has shown high resistance to frost, drought and common diseases of the culture.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The raspberry variety Zeva may interest gardeners with the following characteristics:
- high productivity;
- optional garter;
- resistance to different climatic conditions and major diseases;
- fruiting duration;
- presentation of delicious berries;
- good transportability and keeping quality of fruits;
- universality of use.
- The variety has few disadvantages:
- requires a high agricultural background and proper cropping;
- not in all regions it turns out to harvest a second crop.
Did you know? The American Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences conducted research and found that red raspberry polyphenols inhibit the negative effects of cells associated with bone destruction, so consuming these berries is a prevention of joint diseases.
The correct agricultural technology of the repairing variety of raspberries Zeva will allow you to collect the maximum number of berries from it. It can be grown for both one and two crops.
Choosing a landing place
Due to the fact that the main crop of remont raspberries falls at the end of summer, you need to choose a place for planting that is well lit by the sun and protected from drafts. This plant crop prefers nutritious and light soil. Loamy soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction is suitable.With increased acidity of the soil, it is recommended to lime the area for planting with crushed chalk or dolomite flour. Groundwater should not come closer than 1 m to ground level. Stagnant water is also unacceptable. For planting, the place where the green manure early grew would be suitable. Otherwise, organic matter (compost, rotted manure) is added to the ground in advance when digging.
Important! Bad predecessors are tomatoes, peppers and potatoes, strawberries, blackberries. On the site where the raspberry was, you can re-plant the crop only after 3-4 years.
Landing and care
Seedlings recommended to plant in the fall - from late September to the first decade of October. When planting between bushes of raspberry varieties Zeva, it is recommended to maintain a distance of 0.35-0.45 m, and in the row spacing to maintain a distance of 1.2-1.5 m. The landing area is prepared in advance. To do this, dig the soil and make nutrients. For 1 m² take 2 buckets of compost and 300 g of complex fertilizer.
To plant the planting material, pits of 0.4 × 0.4 m in size are pulled out, at the bottom of which a mound of nutrient soil is formed. Then they carefully pour water, and when it is absorbed into the soil, a seedling is placed on the mound, spreading the root system. After this, the pit is covered with soil, ramming the soil around the plant. The root neck should be at ground level, but it is permissible to deepen it by 4 cm.In the warm period, in the absence of rain, watering is carried out 1 time per week. In dry weather, moisten 1 time in 3-5 days. The soil should be saturated with moisture 0.3-0.4 m deep. To moisten the planting, it is better to use a drip irrigation system. Raspberry bushes gradually deplete the soil, especially when harvesting twice a season, so they need to be fed during the season.
Important! Particular attention should be paid to the flow of moisture during flowering and fruiting.
The following dressings are recommended:
- In March, complex fertilizers with nitrogen content are introduced. For feeding during this period, it is good to use organics - rotted manure or bird droppings.
- On the eve of flowering, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used.. 40 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium chloride are taken per 1 m².
- After harvesting in the fall, they are again fed with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus.. It is also good to use wood ash before wintering. It will not only fertilize the earth, but will also be a preventative measure against diseases and pests.
Pest and Disease Control
Repairing raspberries Zeva is resistant to diseases and pests, but under adverse conditions some problems may arise. During steady rains, fungal diseases may appear - powdery mildew, anthracnose, rust, rot. To combat them, they are treated with Bordeaux liquid, “Fundazol”, “Fitosporin”. For the prevention, they are treated with Bordeaux liquid in the spring before the appearance of color and in the fall after the harvest.
But not only bushes are sprayed, they must work the soil near them. Indeed, in the earth pests and pathogens of various diseases can survive the cold. There are no effective drugs against viral diseases, therefore it is important to follow preventive measures to prevent them - to carry out sanitary pruning of bushes and pests that are carriers of the virus.
When the first signs of a viral disease are detected, the bush must be dug up and burned to prevent its spread.Pests of remont raspberries are gall midges, aphids, spider mites, beetles, weevils, kidney moths, stem flies. To combat them, drugs such as “Fitoferm”, “Actellik”, “Metaphos”, “Karbofos” are used.
It is also necessary to follow the general preventive measures:
- carry out sanitary pruning and burn pruning;
- cut off the growth so that there is no thickening;
- remove weed grass and remove fallen leaves, plant debris;
- digging aisle in the fall.
For raspberry garter, it is better to install trellises, although the raspberry variety Zeva does not always need it. To do this, when planting seedlings, they immediately drive in supports 1.5 m high (pegs made of wood or metal) with an interval of 0.5 m. Between such supports stretch the wire in 2-3 rows. To this design and carry out the garter of the branches. Fix shoots to the trellises with tapes made of soft material, so as not to damage them.
Pruning and wintering
After planting, it is recommended to remove shoots to a height of 0.4-0.45 m. In the spring, pruning is carried out if last year's shoots are left, and also damaged and excess shoots are removed. The procedure is carried out in April, when the buds swell, and you can freely distinguish between dried shoots from healthy ones. In May, when the branches grow about 1 m, it is advisable to pinch them, cutting off the top.
This procedure will make fruiting longer. In areas with a long warm period, another pruning is performed twice a season in July to obtain berries. To do this, all seedlings that are 2 years old are removed after harvesting so that the nutrients enter the young shoots.
Important! It is necessary to make sure that no stumps remain after trimming, since otherwise the plant culture will lose the property of remontance. From the hemp will appear small shoots.
In the fall, pruning is carried out depending on how many crops they want to get in the next season. If only one, cut off all the branches. In the case when they plan to harvest twice, the shoots are not removed. Only the upper part is cut off, and also dry, weak and excess shoots are cut off. In areas with cooler climates, all branches at ground level are cut to produce one crop per season in the fall (late October to early November).Strong and healthy shoots will appear in the spring, which will yield a good harvest closer to the fall. This raspberry variety tolerates frosts. It is enough to bend the branches to the ground before frost, so that they receive heat from the ground in the cold period. In southern areas, you can mulch the soil with humus, compost or mowed grass. In regions with cold winters, bushes protect against frost with agrofibre or spruce branches. In the spring, such a shelter is removed so that the plant does not rot.
Harvesting and transportation
Since the variety is repaired, the crop is received twice a season. It is recommended to collect berries in dry weather in the morning, and if dew has fallen, then in the afternoon. Optimum raspberries immediately collect in storage containers. The container should be used shallow.
Did you know? In 2013, American researchers, conducting experiments on mice, found that ellagic acid, located in raspberries, reduces their drug damage to the liver.
Fruits have a dense structure, therefore, they have good keeping quality (up to 4 days), normally tolerate transportation. They are suitable not only for fresh consumption, but also for processing. They make good jam, compote, jam. Berries are also suitable for freezing and drying.The raspberry variety Zeva belongs to the European varieties of remontant raspberries of the “tutimer” type, that is, it has two full waves of fruiting. To get large yields, she needs a high agricultural background, proper pruning and warm autumn. It is recommended for the southern regions, but can be grown in the middle lane.