Raspberry Volnitsa: characteristics, features of cultivation
At first glance, the raspberry variety Volnitsa does not stand out against the background of other similar varieties, but it has a number of undeniable advantages, among which special attention is paid to the comparative simplicity of caring for raspberries and the possibility of universal use of the picked berries. What else can this plant boast of and what you should know about the organization of the process of its cultivation in a personal plot - more on this later.
The first description of this varietal variety of raspberries appeared in 1994, almost immediately after the breeders received a new plant. Among the authors of the variety, Aitzhanova S.D. and Kulagin V.L., who worked under the guidance of the famous breeder I. Kazakov. As parent forms for the new raspberries, they used the then popular Brigantine and Bryansk varietiesfrom which the large-fruited non-repairing Volnitsa inherited all its best qualities.
In addition, according to the “parental” line of the described raspberries, the relatives include the Novosti Kuzmina variety, which is deservedly considered one of the oldest and at one time became the basis for the creation of Bryansk raspberries. Raspberry Volnitsa is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation and is recommended for cultivation in the North-West region of the country.
Did you know? The first raspberry plantings in Russia appeared in the 1100s, thanks to the efforts of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. The area of raspberries of those times was so large that forest animals could freely walk around them, enjoying delicious and ripe raspberries.
When describing raspberry varieties Volnitsa, it is worth paying special attention not only to the characteristics of the berries, but also to the appearance of the bushes, which in this case reach a height of 170-200 cm. The shoots of the plant cannot be called upright and most often they are slightly tilted or scattered in different directions (according to one of the theories, it is the free arrangement of bush branches that served as the basis for the name of the variety).
The branches at Volnitsa are of medium thickness, brown in the first year and light brown in the second year of growing the plant. From the tops to the very bottom, they are all covered with small, but very prickly spikes of purple. Leaf plates - saturated green in color, with a pronounced "crease" of the surface, but without pubescence.
The leaves densely cover the shoots, and their curl is medium or low. Replacement shoots grow at an average rate, so in one season they usually appear no more than nine, and the mother bush can direct all its forces to the formation of fruits.
Raspberry berries are formed only on the long and powerful last year's shoots. Often on one such branch, about 10-12 tassels appear, from which later grows to 20 bright red cone-shaped berries with a large number of small seeds on the surface.
The mass of one sweet and sour raspberry is 3.5–5 g.
The first thing gardeners pay attention to when choosing a variety is its maximum yield and the ability to grow it in different climatic conditions, therefore, before purchasing seedlings of the Volnitsa variety, it is worth studying the following features of this varietal variety of raspberries.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Raspberry Volnitsa feels equally well both in the southern and middle regions of the country, and in the northern regions of the Russian Federation, as tolerates winter temperature drops to -30 ° C. For maximum plant safety during a period of significant temperature reduction, it is recommended to bend the shoots to the soil, contributing to the creation of a thick snow layer.
In the summer, the bushes tolerate drought well, but to form a juicy and sweet crop during the appearance of ovaries on the bushes, it is worth taking care of enough moisture under the raspberry.
Productivity and fruiting
In Russia, as well as in neighboring countries (Ukraine and Belarus), fruiting of the variety shrubs begins already at the end of June, which allows us to attribute the culture to a group of plants of medium early ripening. In the rest of the territory, this raspberry is rather mid-season, and the specific harvest dates vary depending on weather conditions in the current year.
In warm weather, during the entire growing period, up to 4 kg of berries can be collected from one bush. Although these are not the maximum indicators for a given culture, they will completely satisfy the demands of an ordinary summer resident, especially since the quality of the fruits is excellent.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any other raspberry variety, Volnitsa has both strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, before planting a plant, it is worth exploring all its possible advantages and disadvantages.
- The following characteristics can be included in the first group:
- high frost resistance (up to -35 ° C), and the bushes tolerate even icing, which is explained by the high flexibility of the shoots (they tend to the ground, but do not break under the weight of ice, which is especially valuable when grown in the northern regions of the country);
- good yield of berries;
- excellent resistance to fungal ailments and popular pests in the form of raspberry beetle and stem fly;
- resistance of berries to falling during ripening;
- excellent crop mobility;
- the presence of a large amount of dry matter, which is very important when creating jam, jams, juices.
- As for the shortcomings of this variety, then they include:
- the need to organize supporting trellises, which are simply necessary for sloping shoots;
- sometimes there is an overly strong connection between the stem and the berry, which somewhat complicates the harvest process;
- a large number of prickly spikes on the shoots;
- susceptibility to leaf bud mites, who are very fond of raspberries of this variety.
With the competent organization of plant care for small flaws of the variety, you can "close your eyes", since positive qualities exceed them.
Planting any kind of raspberry begins with the selection of suitable terms for the procedure, the planting material itself and the place for planting raspberries. Each of these stages has its own characteristics, which every gardener should know about.
Take a closer look
The ideal time for landing activities in this case is the end of September or the beginning of Octoberwhen before the onset of the first frosts the plant has enough time.
Spring planting (approximately in the middle or end of April) is more relevant for the northern regions, since it is more difficult to predict the onset of frost in autumn.
During the summer, shrubs will certainly have time to adapt to a new place and will be able to safely survive the winter.
Choosing the right place
When choosing a site for planting young Volnitsa plants, it is worth paying attention only to moderately moist, well-lit areas, preferably located on a small hill. The optimal occurrence of groundwater is no closer than 1.5–2 m from the site surface, which will guarantee the absence of moisture stagnation and possible freezing of the root system in winter.
It is good if the territory you choose is on the south side of the site, not far from the fence or outbuildings located in the north. Having planted bushes, 1.5 m from them, you can protect the plantings from cold gusts of wind and drafts. In the case of planting several raspberry bushes at once, between adjacent plants should leave at least 70-100 cm of free space, taking into account the further growth of the plant.
Soil preparation for raspberry planting is carried out either from autumn (during spring planting), or a month before planting in the autumn, and enriches the substrate with rotted manure or compost, as well as organic mulch at the rate of 3-5 kg per 1 m² of territory.
Important! When using green manure plants (for example, mowed mustard) for fertilizing, it is worthwhile to exclude the possibility of harmful weeds entering the soil, which often become home to pathogens and pests in the winter.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Suitable for planting seedlings of raspberry varieties Volnitsa must have a well-developed root system and be completely healthy, without signs of disease or pest damage. The leaves of the aboveground part may have a light green color, but the presence of spots or dark edges on them is not allowed.
For preventive purposes, the rhizome of the selected seedlings should be additionally treated in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (the roots fall into it for about half an hour), and then dip into any available root stimulant (for example, the well-known drug "Kornevin"). In the latter case, the solution is prepared according to the instructions on the package, after which the rhizome is placed in the prepared liquid for a day.
An alternative treatment option may be dusting the root system of plants with a crushed composition immediately before landing on the site. It is advisable to cut the stem of the seedling to a height of 40 cm so that the shrub does not spend energy on preserving shoots and foliage, but directs all the energy to the formation and strengthening of the rhizome.
If the root is damaged, trimmed or torn off, it is worth pouring ready-mixed soil or compost to the bottom of the planting pit and mulching the plantings from above to better retain moisture. Fresh manure for fertilizer should not be used, which will help prevent a burn of the root system of plants.
Did you know? To increase raspberry productivity by 60–100%, it is worth organizing raspberries near the apiary. Collecting nectar, bees perfectly tolerate pollen, fertilizing a large number of flowers.
Planting raspberries Volnitsa can be performed in several ways: by separate bushes or trench plantings. In the first case, it is necessary to dig out planting pits 40 × 50 cm in advance and, after filling them with nutritious soil mixture, plant the raspberry bushes themselves, carefully spreading their roots.
Between adjacent rows of stands should be at least two meters of free space, and between plants in a row - about 1 m. Falling asleep, make sure that the root neck remains above the ground, because with excessive deepening of this part, decay of the root system may begin, which will entail further death of the entire bush.
Separate ditches must be arranged for the trench planting of raspberries. 50 cm wide and about 45 cm deep. In this case between adjacent rows should be at least 1 m of free space, and between the plants themselves - at least 40 cm. 15 cm of soil mixture prepared from manure, fertile soil and mineral fertilizers with the possible addition of a small amount of ash is poured into each organized trench.
Raspberry seedlings themselves are placed on top of the nutrient base, carefully filling them with soil to the level of the root neck.At the end of the procedure, it remains only to water and compact the substrate well, if necessary, additionally mulching it with peat or wood sawdust.
Almost immediately after the raspberry planting, Volnitsa on the site begins a long stage of care for the bushes. Its main aspects are timely watering and fertilizing of plantations, as well as regular pruning of young bushes in order to form a large and high-quality crop. Of course, each of these actions has its own characteristics.
Volnitsa is a relatively drought-tolerant plant, so overflows are unacceptable when growing it. To determine the need for regular watering, always assess the condition of the top layer of the earth, and when it dries, dispense a dosed liquid.
On average, 3-5 irrigations are performed in one season: with the advent of spring, after a snowy winter (at least 10 liters of water are poured under one bush), then the procedure is repeated twice in June - at least two buckets of water must be spent on one plant. Further watering is carried out as necessary, with a slight restriction during the ripening period of the berries (from excessive moisture the fruits can become very watery).
Loosening and mulching of soil
Once the moisture is completely absorbed, you can do the removal of weeds by loosening and mulching the soil. Since the root system of raspberries is not very deep, loosening the earth is worth no more than 8-10 cm in depth. As a mulching five-centimeter shelter you can use peat, sawdust or ordinary mowed hay, changing the cover with a regularity of once every few weeks.
The first top dressing of raspberries Volnitsa is performed 2-3 years after planting bushes, the truth is only in the case when during the performance of planting measures a sufficient amount of organic matter and mineral compounds was used. In the future, in the spring before the snow melts, it is useful to add nitrogen-mineral compounds (necessary for plants to gain green mass) in the near-trunk zone of bushes.
Before flowering, potash-phosphorus mineral fertilizers with calcium and magnesium content will be useful for plants. In the latter case, foliar top dressing is considered more appropriate, which is carried out by spraying plants from the spray gun.
To prevent damage to raspberries by diseases and pests, it is important to spray it with a three percent solution of Bordeaux mixture and a one percent solution of copper chloroxide in a timely manner. Both drugs are used before buds on the bushes.
Raspberries are cut twice a year: in spring and autumn. With the arrival of the first heat, all branches frozen and broken during the winter are subject to removal, and the frozen tops of healthy specimens are shortened to the first healthy kidney (as a result of the procedure, no more than 6-8 branches should remain on one bush).
In the fall, all fruiting shoots, as well as branches affected by diseases and pests, are subject to cutting. In the summer, it is necessary to regularly remove excess basal shoots, thereby limiting the growth of raspberry.
Important! After the autumn pruning, you need to leave more strong and healthy shoots on the bushes, as some of them can freeze in the winter, which will make the bush not so lush in the spring.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting and further storage of fruits during the cultivation of the variety Volnitsa are carried out in accordance with generally accepted recommendations:
- take ripe berries in the morning, but after the dew leaves the leaves;
- performing the procedure, always monitor the force of pressure on the berries, so as not to take them (in this form they can not be stored for a long time);
- it is better to put the crop in shallow wooden containers with a sufficient number of holes for filtering (sprinkle raspberries with one or a maximum of two layers, trying not to compress the fruits);
- Raspberry crates are best placed in a cool room, with air temperature in the aisles 0 ... + 3 ° C, where they can stand for about 2-3 days;
- for long-term storage of the harvested crop, it will have to be frozen or processed for jam, jams, juices, especially since the variety described is distinguished by its universality of use.
To prevent raspberries from overriding, from the beginning of July it is worth inspecting the bushes daily. and, as necessary, remove new ripened fruits. This option is perfect for those who like to enjoy fresh berries and want to maximize the period of fruiting.
In regions with snowy winters, the raspberry Volnitsa does not need additional shelter for the cold season, so it is enough to bend the trimmed shoots to the ground, further contributing to a better formation of the snow layer on them.In areas with little snowy winters and frequent gusts of cold wind, it is better to cover raspberry bushes so that the shoots do not dry out or freeze. Before performing the procedure, the branches are tied and bent to the ground, and after fixing in this position they are covered with spruce branches or any other non-woven material (spanbond is especially popular).
Growing a variety of Volnitsa on your site, you will not have any problems with raspberry expansion, because the bushes annually form a sufficient amount of overgrowth from the paranasal sinuses of the rhizome. Already by the fall of 30 cm from the mother stem strong and well-developed root offspring appear that need to be separated and planted in another suitable place.
However, if the option of using shoots as a planting material does not suit you, you can propagate raspberries with cuttings. To do this, with the advent of spring, you need to dig a small trench, 30–40 cm wide and 40–50 cm deep, and pour a mixture of 200 g of superphosphate, 150 g of potassium fertilizer and two buckets of rotted manure to the bottom of the recess, thoroughly mixing all of these components.As a suitable handle, a healthy and strong-looking branch is selected, a part of the kidneys is cut off from it, and then they are bent to an organized hole and, falling asleep with a substrate, observe the development of the root system. A new rhizome very quickly appears in the place of the cut part, and branches develop from the remaining eyes.
Throughout the summer season, the planting site must be carefully watered, and on especially hot days, cover them with a translucent film, thereby creating a greenhouse. As soon as the emerging sprouts are well strengthened, you can separate the branch from the mother bush and look after it as an independent young plant.
Diseases and Pests
Compliance with the rules of growing raspberries usually guarantees a relatively easy harvest, especially since this plant is considered resistant to raspberry beetle, stem fly and most fungal ailments.
The most common enemies of culture are the kidney tick and gall midge, although the presence of raspberry weevil on the stems is not excluded. All of them overcome weakened or damaged plants, especially with cracks and fractures on the shoots.
Timely sanitary pruning of bushes helps prevent the mass spread of pests, but to completely get rid of the problem, you should use one of the popular insecticidal preparations: for example, Fufanon, Inta-Vir, Inta-TsM, Iskra.
They are sprayed only until the bushes bloom during the first buds (the comma is needed here, since the second part of the sentence specifies the first). In relation to fungal ailments, treatment with Fitosporin-M means, a solution of Bordeaux mixture, and Chorus composition will be relevant. Standards of use and the procedure for using each of them is given in the manufacturer's instructions.
The main preventive methods for raspberry growing will be control of soil moisture, metered use of fertilizers, compliance with crop rotation requirements and optimal crop proximity. In addition, spring spraying of plantings with a solution of Bordeaux mixture and copper sulphate will not be superfluous, especially on plantings that already suffered from pests or diseases.
In general, the cultivation of the Volnitsa variety does not differ in increased complexity and, subject to the standard requirements for the cultivation of this variety variety, no difficulties should arise. With moderate efforts, you can soon get a tasty and healthy fruit crop.