Description of diseases and pests of strawberries, their control
Growing garden strawberries or strawberries, as we used to call it, can bring a lot of unpleasant worries to the gardener. We will talk about cultural diseases, the causes of the appearance and description of the disease, as well as possible treatment.
Causes and symptoms of some strawberry diseases
The symptoms of some diseases are similar, so it is important to know them thoroughly in order to find the right solution to the problem, and not to aggravate the situation. For greater clarity, a photo is provided below for a description of the ailments.
Did you know? In 2010, the strawberry gene was deciphered, and it turned out that the berry has 10 thousand more genes than human.
The causative agent is a fungus that lives in the soil., his disputes are incredibly tenacious, do not die in cold weather. Solanaceous crops are affected by withering; therefore, it is important to observe crop rotation and carefully select predecessors.
Dampness on the background of heat provokes the development of the ailment, dense planting with a lack of ventilation, watering with cold water, the dominance of weeds. The parasite, penetrating the plant tissue, releases toxins, which are carried along the vessels along with moisture and nutrients. Young seedlings and seedlings are more vulnerable, the response to infection is stunting.Poisoned bushes begin to dry out, the root affected first becomes loose. The bush begins to dry from the bottom leaves, so sometimes it seems that it just has little watering. After the petiole, the color changes to a red tint, and the berries become brown. There is tissue necrosis in the area of the root neck of the bush.
Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet been developed, the diseased bush needs to be dug up and disposed of. The soil in which he grew to disinfect, tools too.
The causative agent of rot can live long in the soil, on the bushes. Spores of the fungus are carried by the wind over a large area. Phytophthora activity manifests itself in the summer, promotes "flowering" increased humidity, weakened plant immunity.
It appears on the leaves with brown spots, on the fruits, changing the structure of the pulp. The outer skin hardens, inside the berry becomes watery, the taste is bitter. The skin is covered with dark spots, increasing in size. Gradually, the entire bush and berries, and the ground part dry up. It is possible to fight late blight on strawberries with the help of the drug Alirin-B.
For greater efficiency, complex processing is carried out:
- watering the soil - 2 tablets per 10 liters of water;
- spraying bushes - 2 tablets per 1 liter of water.
In total, you will need 3 procedures with an interval of a week.
Rot develops in conditions of humidity and heat, which is especially common in a greenhouse. Strawberry cultivation in one place for more than 3 years contributes to infection.
Important! More resistant to gray rot and other fungal infections are varieties of garden strawberries, flower stalks which are above the foliage growth line.
Symptoms of the disease appear in the form of dark spots, gradually turning into a stage of gray moldy plaque on the fruits. The berries dry out, and the disease passes to the stems and mustache, which is dangerous for the processes of reproduction.The use of chemicals at the fruiting stage can be dangerous, therefore it is necessary to treat the bushes with a biological fungicide, for example, Gamair. Watering the soil for the destruction of spores is carried out with a solution in the ratio of 1 tablet per 5 liters of water, treatment of bushes is carried out by the spraying method: 2 tablets per 1 liter of water.
Brown, White, and Brown Spotting
Fungi also cause spotting. White variety recognized by small dots of a reddish hue on the foliage. Gradually they expand, occupying the entire surface area.The struggle consists in the destruction of diseased specimens, spraying healthy bushes of garden berries with copper-containing preparations (Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate).
Brown spotting like all fungal diseases, it develops in high humidity mode. In the spring, pathogen spores carry waking insects. Inspecting the plantation affected by the fungus, you can see brown spots that cover the entire plate over time, and new spores of the fungus grow through the leaf tissue.
Gradually, spots with a reddish tint affect both the stems and peduncles, threatening a lack of crop. The treatment is carried out with the biological fungicide "Fitolavin", spraying the bushes with a solution in a proportion of 2 ml / 1 liter of water.
Brown spotting recognizable by rounded bright red spots on all terrestrial parts of the plant, including peduncles. After a while, the middle of the lesions becomes gray. Strawberry tissue necrosis begins.
The fungus pathogen loves moisture and heat, dense plantings on the garden. You can get rid of the disease using "Fitosporin", spraying with a solution of 1.5 g / 1 liter of water. To water the soil in which spores hibernate, take 2 ml of the drug in 5 liters of water.
The description of the symptoms of powdery mildew resembles a manifestation of gray rot, but there are also differences:
- whitish bloom on the green parts of the plant;
- twisting of the affected leaves;
- death of flower and fruit ovaries;
- blueness and death of the fruit;
- drying of strawberry mustache.
In high humidity mode against the background of warm weather, in a matter of days, the fungus can destroy all the strawberries on the site. If signs are noticed before flowering, you can use the Topaz systemic fungicide, spray the bush and soil around with a solution of 2 ml / 10 l of water.
Repeated processing, depending on the state of strawberries, after 1-2 weeks. During flowering and fruiting crops, use safe biological agents, for example, Trichodermin. For watering the soil 10 g / 1 l of water, for spraying 10 g / 5 l of water.
Berry plantations attract insects and birds to enjoy sweet fruits. This article discusses the most frequent "uninvited guests" of the garden.
Bird raids on the garden begin with the ripening of early berries and continue until the fall. A couple of scouts can bring the whole flock to the garden and then, the gardener can forget about the crop.
Video: Three Ways to Protect Strawberries from Birds
There are several ways to protect a site from birds:
- Noise - any objects suspended on the branches of trees and bushes that make noise under the vibration of the wind, for example, beer cans or baby rattles. The minus is the constant noise that will annoy both the owner of the site and its neighbors.
- Light - Today, for sure, everyone has CDs that are no longer needed. These plates in tandem with the sun's rays create bright glare that scare away the birds. The same can be said about film from audio or video cassettes, stretched like a web. By the way, a slight breeze can cause sound vibrations of the film and discs. True, there is a minus in that the gardener himself will ripple in his eyes from looking at the garden.
- The best method of protection is considered a grid, which cover the landing. The material can be metal, plastic, the main thing is that it lets light through and does not interfere with the care of the garden. Usually it is installed on arcs, the same as they are for a greenhouse. On the one hand, they are fixed, and on the other, it can be freely lifted to weed the bed, for example.
The gastropods are attracted to the site by humidity, especially often they can be noticed after precipitation. Slugs eat not only berries, but also the green parts of plants, so it is better to prevent their appearance.
Measures to prevent the appearance of slugs:
- straw mulch;
- film cover of the soil;
- nut or egg husks scattered between rows and around strawberry beds;
- a groove around the perimeter of the plantings filled with tobacco dust, ash or lime.
Of the chemical means of control, help for plants is Meta, Thunderstorm. Granular product is scattered around the perimeter and in the aisles.
Did you know? Strawberries are not grown on two continents: in Antarctica, the climate is not suitable, and in Australia, a state ban has been introduced on the cultivation of crops alien to the local ecosystem.
A bug with a body about 3 mm in length, the danger comes more from larvae than from adult specimens. The female lays offspring in the fallen foliage, in the spring the larvae eat foliage and inflorescences, which deprives the summer resident of the crop.
The fight against weevil begins in the early spring with the help of the Inta-Vir drug. Spraying the bushes is carried out with a solution in the ratio of 1 tablet per 10 liters of water. Of the folk remedies, iodine is popular, which is in every medicine cabinet. A solution of iodine on water in a proportion of 1 tsp / 10 l of water is sprayed with strawberries at all stages of development. It is also effective to dust the plantings with ash or tobacco powder.
The pest of berries is not the bug itself, but its larva. The danger is that the insect damages the root system, and since the development of the larva lasts a long time, the entire plantation of garden strawberries is threatened.
During digging of the soil on the site, the larvae are collected manually. If there are too many insects, they are treated with the Aktara insecticide: 4 g of the powder is diluted in 5 l of water, the soil is watered and the bushes are sprayed.
This insect is a real scourge of strawberries, there are no methods to combat it. The affected bushes should be dug up and disposed of. Microscopic nematodes affect all parts of the plant, penetrating into the flower buds, into the root system.
The problem is also that in the soil the nematode lives up to 10 years. Therefore, to combat it, it is important, first of all, to monitor the cleanliness of the soil and take preventive measures, consisting in its processing. The drug Fitoverm is effective, spraying with a solution of 10 ml / 1 liter of water.
Ants and aphids
A small insect that inhabits the entire garden in a few days with its offspring. Having settled on the foliage, in the sinuses between the leaves and on the stems, the pest infects the entire terrestrial part of the bush. A gluttonous colony eats flower ovaries, which affects the future harvest.
To destroy aphids will help spraying with the Aktara insecticide, a solution in a proportion of 8 ml 1 liter of water. Ants can organize their home in the roots of the strawberry bush. Since these insects benefit by killing aphids, gardeners prefer humane eviction from the site.
This happens in the following sequence:
- The procedure is carried out either until 9 am, or after 6-7 pm, when the whole ant family is in the house.
- The walls of the bucket are oiled with sunflower oil, rubber gloves are also oiled, which is desirable to protect hands from bites.
- An anthill is carefully dug up and placed in a bucket.
- Pour insects away from the site.
- The place of the former anthill is covered with ash.
Important! If, after removing the anthill, some of the stems of the strawberry bush are exposed, it must be carefully sprinkled with soil.
To prevent the settlement of insects, wormwood and mint are planted around the site. With a large congestion, where the transfer is not easy to do, use a drug, for example, Anteater. A solution of 1 ml / 10 l of water is prepared, poured into the anthill, after digging it out.
Microscopic insect, the presence of which give out black dots on the surface of the sheet. The danger from the parasite is that it destroys the buds of strawberry flowers, drinks juices from foliage. The bush slows down in growth, the foliage shrinks. In spring planting is treated with colloidal sulfur. You can get rid of the insect with the help of the “Actellik” preparation, by spraying with a solution of 2 ml / 2 l of water.
All gardeners know that a disease or pest attack is better and less troublesome to prevent than to treat.
Therefore, it is so important to take the following preventive measures:
- Compliance with crop rotation, the selection of the right predecessors and neighbors. Growing strawberries in one place up to 3 years.
- Preplant planting, digging, thorough inspection for larvae, disinfection.
- Disinfectant treatment of seeds and seedlings.
- Choosing the right landing place so that there is no shadow and moisture accumulation. Observance of the interval between plants.
- Deoxidation of the soil is carried out if necessary, which reduces the risk of the disease. Do not overdo it with nitrogen supplements during care.
- Monitor the rate and frequency of watering.
- From early spring, they carry out spraying with copper-containing preparations, infusion of repellents, repelling pests.
- The soil covered with mulch will protect plants from overheating, weeds, insects. The berries do not come in contact with the soil, respectively, the risks are reduced.
- Be sure to trim the strawberries so as not to thicken the bushes.
- After harvesting, fertilizing the soil with phosphorus and potassium is carried out, carefully cleaned and dug up to destroy the possible offspring of insects. The top layer of soil is often simply cleaned.
Video: the first spring protection of strawberries from pests and diseases
Correctly planting strawberries is half the success in growing it. It is important to know about preventive measures, to have an idea of diseases and methods of their treatment.