Features and types of curly strawberry varieties
Strawberry is one of the most common crops that can be found in the beds of gardens or greenhouses. Moreover, the selection of various hybrid varieties has long been able to grow these berries at home - in apartments and on balconies. Therefore, today, anyone can grow their own tasty and fragrant strawberries at almost any time of the year. After all, a home crop is primarily valuable in that, in addition to vitamins and nutrients, it is an environmentally friendly product.
Varieties of Curly Strawberries
Weaving strawberries - not only fruit, but also an ornamental plant that can decorate any garden. Taking into account the structural features, it should be noted several differences that distinguish these varieties from many others:
- a large number of hanging mustaches, falling down, which can, if desired, also be fixed vertically;
- high yield of curly strawberries due to the ability of the culture to form fruits not only on peduncles, but also on the mustache;
- most of these varieties have a repairing appearance;
- structural features of the bushes allow you to abandon frequent weeding;
- Harvesting is much simplified, since you do not have to bend over the berries.
Did you know? On the territory of Belgium, in the city of Vepion there is a whole museum dedicated to strawberries. It sells a variety of strawberry souvenirs, among which you can even find strawberry beer.
The Tuscany variety is a hybrid variety of garden strawberries, bred by Italian breeders in 2011. Strawberries of this variety are distinguished by compact low-growing bushes (no more than 25 cm high), which grow horizontally by 35–40 cm. The length of the shoots can reach 1 m. The leaves are dense, dark green in color. Inflorescences are multiple and small, bright ruby color. Berries of a red hue, of a classical conical shape, their mass varies from 30 to 40 g. The pulp is dense and sweet, with a pronounced aroma.
Tasting assessment of taste is high. The variety is characterized by productivity - one bush brings up to 1 kg of fruit. In addition, Tuscany is extremely unpretentious in care, has long fruiting and stable immunity to various diseases, as well as high drought tolerance. Strawberries of this variety are suitable for growing not only in open ground, but also in houses and apartments. Due to their high decorativeness, the plant can serve as an ornament to any home garden.
Queen Elizabeth belongs to the cultivars of varieties of long daylight hours - that is, inflorescences and fruits are formed under natural light for at least 10 hours a day. The first ovaries usually appear in the first decade of summer (mid-June), and the opportunity to harvest is presented in 2-3 weeks. It has powerful bushes, with large, light green leaves. Berries of this variety are large and regular conical shape.
The average weight of one fruit is about 40 g, but in the conditions of a not very hot summer, this figure can increase to 100 g. The strawberry pulp is red, has a density and juiciness, aromatic and sweet. Yield indicators are quite high - one plant can bring at least 1 kg of berries. Queen Elizabeth also has a high resistance to cold (which, however, does not make it possible to leave the bushes without shelter), and is resistant to various diseases.
Queen Elizabeth 2
The variety was formed thanks to the observation of breeder Kachalkin M., who identified several bushes among the planting of Queen Elizabeth’s strawberries, strikingly distinguished by a high yield (up to 1.5 kg) and berry sizes (up to 60 g) - the seedlings of these plants became known as the Queen Elizabeth 2 variety. Otherwise, these two varieties are similar to each other and have the same characteristics.
The Ostara variety is the result of the fruitful work of Dutch breeders. Strawberries are characterized by continuous long-term fruiting. (from the beginning of heat to the first frosts), which is possible due to the constant renewal of flower stalks - i.e. on one bush there are three stages of development at the same time - inflorescences, ovaries and ripened fruits. Shrubs of this variety are small in size and compact. The berries are red in color, with dense and juicy pulp, as well as the aroma of strawberries.
The taste is sweet, with a slightly pronounced sourness. The average weight is about 70 g, which, however, is rapidly decreasing with the age of the bush. The yield of Ostara is high - from one bush you can remove up to 1 kg of berries. At the same time, the last waves of fruiting (late August - early September) bring a much larger yield than the first. Strawberries of this variety also have a stable immunity against most fungal diseases (while being sufficiently vulnerable to gray rot).
Homemade delicacy is one of the varieties of decorative varieties of ampel strawberries. It has powerful and dense foliage, dark green in color and long peduncleswhich greatly facilitate harvesting.
Berries are bright red, cone-shaped. The pulp has a dense structure and is characterized by juiciness and a classic aroma. The taste is sweet, with weak acid.
Strawberry Planting Rules
The process of planting curly strawberry varieties begins with a properly selected soil composition, since these cultures grow and develop in a fairly limited space. For these purposes, you can use purchased soil, which is intended for growing strawberries (or any mixture that contains an equal amount of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus), or make the substrate yourself.
In this case, you will need: 2 equal parts of compost and meadow land, as well as 1/2 part of peat and manure. Before planting, the substrate is impregnated with a solution of phytosporin and carefully dried.
There are several basic ways to plant weaving strawberries in a permanent place:
- Planting bushes in a hanging pot or planter - this design is able to decorate any exterior, especially at the stage of flowering and fruiting of the plant. It should be noted that the most suitable container is a pot, necessarily with drainage holes, the diameter of which is at least 30 cm. Landing in this way can be carried out already in mid-spring.
- Landing in open ground using a net - next to the seedlings planted in the soil, a wicker or metal mesh is installed, the height of which should not exceed 1 m. Each bush is tied with a mustache to the structure, thereby creating a spectacular hedge of greenery and berries. When grown in open ground, planting can be carried out in the second decade of summer.
- Pyramid planting - for this method, several wooden boxes are used, the height of which is about 30 cm, and the overall dimensions have different indicators (for example, 1000 × 1000 cm, 500 × 500 cm, etc.). Capacities are set on top of each other, starting with the largest one, thus forming a pyramid. At the same time, strawberry bushes are planted along the edges of the boxes, with a decrease in quantity at each step up.
- the distance between the planted bushes should be at least 30 cm;
- the level of the heart should be above the ground;
- after planting, the soil is watered abundantly and then mulched.
The process of growing strawberries requires careful, systematic and competent care throughout the entire growing season. Only following the basic rules of agricultural activities, you can get a quality crop in large quantities.
Planted at a permanent place, seedlings need frequent watering, by sprinkling or using an irrigation system. After planting, the soil of the seedlings is not moistened for several days, giving them time to root and take root in the garden. In the next week, watering should be carried out daily, 2 times a day, at the rate of 2 liters per 1 m² of soil. In the future, watering is reduced to 1 time per week, but with an increase in volumes - 7-8 liters per 1 m².
In conditions of stable heat, the frequency of watering increases to 1 time in 4-5 days. In the first year of fruiting, watering must begin at the stage of fruit ovary. Moisture is applied as needed, depending on weather and climate conditions.
In the conditions of a hot summer, watering is carried out once every 10-14 days, and the volume of water will depend on the stage of plant vegetation:
- before the flowering period, about 10 liters of water per 1 m² will be required;
- during fruiting - about 22 liters per 1 m², based on the fact that the depth of soil moisture should reach at least 20 cm.
Important! Watering with cold water (for example, from a well or a well) slows down the growth and development of plants.
After each watering it is recommended to carry out loosening, which prevents the appearance of a crust on the surface of the earth and contributes to the enrichment of the root system with oxygen (it is not recommended to carry out a similar procedure during fruiting). It is also necessary to systematically remove weed grass, however, weeding must be carried out extremely carefully, in order to avoid damage to the rhizomes of the bushes.
The procedure for mulching the soil is carried out several times a year:
- in the spring - prevents contact of peduncles with soil;
- in the fall - for protection against frosts.
Important! Mulching is best done using straw or coniferous branches that make it easy to maintain soil moisture.
The soil in which the strawberry bushes grow requires constant feeding, which will enable the plants to receive all the nutrients - this procedure is extremely important at every stage of the plant’s vegetation.
In total, there are three main dressings:
- The first time fertilizers are applied in the spring, immediately after the snow has fallen. This procedure is aimed at replenishing the lack of nitrogen - the element that is responsible for the formation of the aerial parts of the plant. For this purpose, mineral fertilizers are used, which are prepared according to the instructions, or organic, for example, mullein, 0.5 l of which should be diluted in 10 l of water and water 1 liter of solution 1 bush; nettle infusion prepared from crushed greens, which is poured with water and infused for 3-4 days, and then strawberry bushes are watered with this solution, previously diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
- The second top dressing is introduced during the flowering period (mid-May) - This time, potassium is replenished in the soil, affecting not only the marketability of berries and their taste, but also increasing the transportability of strawberries.In this case, the bushes can be fertilized both under the root, for example, using a solution of potassium nitrate prepared in the proportions of 1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water (0.5 liters under 1 bush), and as an extra root top dressing, by spraying with zinc sulfate, 2 teaspoons of which is dissolved in 10 liters of water or treatment of plants with boric acid in proportions of 5 g of the drug, diluted in 10 liters of water.
- The third time fertilizers are applied at the end of the second wave of fruiting (in autumn). At this stage, either potash fertilizers (potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate) or natural top dressings prepared according to popular recipes (infusion of 1 liter of wood ash dissolved in 10 liters of water or 1 kg of yeast diluted in 5 liters of water) are used.
Important! The combination of different types of feeding is highly not recommended. — the minimum interval between their use should be at least 8–10 days.
To maintain a stable yield, strawberry bushes require a systematic inspection, during which it is necessary to trim old and dry leaves, single peduncles, as well as an extra mustache. Without bearing fruit, these sections of the plant act as weeds, which use water and nutrients for nothing. On one bush should be left no more than 5-6 main strong mustaches, the rest are removed.
Pest and Disease Control
Despite the resistance of most varieties of strawberries to many diseases, every gardener is required to know their first signs - this will prevent spoilage or death of plants. Among the most common diseases and pests, are noted:
- Fusarium wilt - at the initial stage, the disease manifests itself in the form of spoilage and the death of the edges of the leaves, as well as a change in their color from green to brown or brown. Subsequently, such leaves dry and fall. Infected plants lag behind in development, the leaves become cup-shaped. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to follow agrotechnical measures: adhere to crop rotation rules and use only healthy seedlings for planting. Acquiring seedlings, before planting, plant roots should be moistened in potassium salts of humic acids. In case of infection, the bushes are immediately removed from the beds and burned.
- Powdery mildew - a fungal disease that affects the entire aerial part of the bush. During the illness, on the plant, you can notice areas covered with white coating, which, after a few days, take the form of dark spots. If the infection occurred during the flowering period, the result may be the impossibility of pollination and the formation of berries of irregular shape, as well as the acquisition by the fruits of the smell and taste of mushrooms. As a treatment, treatment of plants with fungicidal and insecticidal preparations is used, in the period before flowering and after harvest.
- Gray rot - a fungus that manifests itself in the form of light brown spots on the surface of berries - over time, they dry and fall off. On the foliage, this disease leaves large brown or gray spots. Gray rot can spread very quickly and can kill up to 80% of the total crop. As a treatment and prevention, before the start of the growing season, all the bushes undergo Bordeaux fluid treatment, and after collecting berries - spraying with Azocene. It is also necessary to follow the rules of care: observe crop rotation, remove weed grass and harvest in time.
- White spotting - a disease whose first signs are the appearance of dotted purple and brown spots on strawberry leaves. In the fight against this disease, Bordeaux liquid treatment is used in the beginning of spring, as well as fungicidal preparations in the fall.
- Strawberry Nematode - small worms, about 1 mm in length, which cause the twisting of young leaves and their deformation, as well as the shortening of cuttings.Rapidly multiplying, these pests lead to fragility and fragility of the bush and almost completely reduce fruiting. There is no way to deal with such insects, and therefore it is best to use prophylaxis - to plant only healthy bushes of seedlings, which are pre-soaked for 10 minutes in hot water (about 40 ° C), and then, immediately, in cold (15 ° C) ; apply crop rotation rules, and in case of infection, remove the affected plants from the beds and burn.
- Strawberry mite - pests, which, eating plant sap, lead the bushes to complete drying and death. As a preventive measure, the seedlings should be warmed up before planting in hot (about 40 ° C), and then soaked in cold (15 ° C) water, and then dried for several hours in a dark room. At the first sign of infection, the bushes are treated with colloidal sulfur, however, when large areas are affected, the bushes are dug up and burned.
- Spider mite - pests, which, settling on the bushes, entangle them with a garden cobweb, which causes the plant to dry out and even die. As a pest control, insecticides are used, the processing of which is carried out after harvest. To increase efficiency, after spraying, the beds are tightly closed with a film, which can be removed only after a few hours.
- Aphid - insects that feed on the juice of young leaves and shoots, which can lead to the complete destruction of strawberry bushes. The fight against aphids is possible with the help of pesticides, as well as folk remedies (for example, infusion of laundry soap and tobacco or infusion of garlic).
Harvesting and storage rules
Strawberries have a very short shelf life, and therefore to extend it for several days, during collection and storage, the following rules should be followed:
- Harvesting is carried out a few days before the onset of full technical ripeness;
- 6-7 days before the expected harvest, the watering of the beds is completely stopped - this will make the pulp more dense and less watery;
- varieties with dense pulp, without voids and cavities in the middle are best stored;
- berries are picked with green caps and tails, discarding fruits with damage or signs of rot;
- the best time for picking berries is the morning hours (after the dew has completely dried) and the evening (after sunset);
- when cooling the collected berries immediately after harvesting to a temperature of 0 ... + 3 ° C, the shelf life can be increased to 3-4 days.
The most suitable containers for storing strawberries are plastic or wooden crates, the bottom of which is covered with thin paper - this option is most often used for transporting the crop.
For storage at home, you can use plastic containers with a lid or glass jars.
Did you know? The first mention of strawberries dates back to 230 BC. e., when this berry began to be planted and eaten in the territory of modern Italy.
In general, the cultivation and propagation of curly strawberries is not a big deal, provided that you carefully study the main agricultural activities. However, it should be remembered that this culture cannot be ignored, which immediately affects the quality and quantity of the crop. The reward for the efforts will be juicy and sweet, fragrant strawberries that will decorate any table.