Features of the cherry-cherry hybrid (duke)
Dukes appeared accidentally as a result of pollinating cherries and cherries. They took characteristics from parental varieties, but most of all resemble cherries. The first dyuks were not frost-resistant and gave meager yields due to freezing. Now many winter-hardy varieties of this fruit hybrid have been bred, and interest in it has increased.
Did you know? The tree received its name “Duke” from the English variety May Duke, which was bred by breeders in the 17th century. on foggy Albion. When translating the name of the variety variety was reduced to dykes.
What is a duke?
This fruit tree is a hybrid of cherries and cherries, so it is also called sweet cherry.
Dukes form a small tree, and their compact crown is symmetrical. Green glossy leaves and red fruits are similar to cherry, but larger in size. The berries weigh on average 10–20 g. The taste, smell and consistency of pulp are the same as in cherries, but due to cherries, they gain more sweetness, and their acidity is very small. Fruits in annual growth.
The first fruits are harvested in the third year from planting. The frost resistance of this fruit tree is stronger than that of cherries, but weaker than that of cherries.
Advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid
- Modern varieties of dykes may interest gardeners with the following advantages:
- resistance to fungal diseases (moniliosis and coccomycosis);
- some varieties cherry fly prefers to fly around;
- early maturity;
- fruits can hang on branches for a long time without losing taste;
- great taste, in which cherry tones and light sourness harmonize with cherry sweetness;
- large fruit sizes, reaching 20 g in some varieties;
- can tolerate frosts to -24 ... -26 ° C;
- unpretentiousness of cultivation.
- the kidneys are prone to freezing;
- the fruits do not tolerate transportation;
- the tendency to sprawl causes gardeners to do pruning more often;
- most varieties are self-infertile and need pollinators.
The benefits of cherry
The red color of duke berries is provided by anthocyanins, which have antioxidant properties and reduce inflammatory reactions. They are low-calorie (50 kcal / 100 g) and contain vitamins and minerals necessary for humans. Among the vitamins most of all ascorbic acid, there is a group of vitamins B, vitamins E, PP, K, A and carotenoids.Their consumption is the prevention of cancer.
Varieties of hybrid with description and photo
Today, breeders have already bred many varieties of sweet cherry. Here is a description of the best of them:
- Wonder cherry. It has abundant and early bearing. This drought-tolerant fruit tree is susceptible to frost, therefore it is recommended for the southern regions.
- Superb Venyaminova. It can be grown in the Non-Black Earth Region. The variety gives high, but irregular crops, forms a vigorous tree with dense fleshy fruits. Fruits in mid-late periods.
- Shpanka Donetsk. Self-pollinated variety, which is rare. Gives many fruits of pink color with yellow flesh inside.
- Saratov baby. Mid-early variety, forming a medium-sized tree. Gives high yields of fruits, which are mainly inside the crown.
- Spartanka. It has high frost resistance. Dark red fruits ripen in the medium term.
- Ivanovna. Mid-late variety with good frost resistance and excellent taste of large fruits.
- Fesanna. Its berries have excellent taste, but the tree is sensitive to frost.
- Dear Gives high yields in medium terms. The berries are dark red, tasty and large.
- The night. Its fruits are dark red in color and well resist fungal diseases. Mid-late variety.
- Pivonia. It has excellent yields and tasty dark-colored fruits.
- Spectacular. Its fruits have a rich cherry flavor. It is sensitive to the sun and needs whitewashing of the trunk to avoid spring burns.
This fruit tree can be planted in autumn and spring. Autumn planting is acceptable for residents of the southern regions, and in another area should be planted in the spring so that the saplings of the sweet cherry root well and prepare for the cold. For these fruit trees, you should choose a place well-lit by the sun, without cold winds, with a depth of groundwater not closer than 2 m to the surface. There should be no stagnation of water at the selected location. Soils are preferred with a neutral reaction.
Seedlings should be bought from specialized nurseries or from sellers with a good reputation. The choice should be stopped on zoned varieties.
Two-year or three-year-old seedlings with a developed root system take root well. Such a tree has a trunk of about 0.6 m and several shortened branches.
Important! The tree should not have signs of disease and damage, exfoliated bark, spots, growths.
Ground preparation and landing
For spring planting, it is more convenient to prepare a hole in the fall or at least a month before planting. A hole is dug with a diameter of about 1 m and a depth of 0.8 m. If several trees are planted, a distance of 5 m is maintained between them. When digging holes, the upper fertile layer is immediately laid separately, then to make a mixture of soil and fertilizers. As nutrients, you can take 3 cups of wood ash, 300 g of superphosphate and 250 g of potassium sulfate. Humus is brought into poor land, and sand is made into heavy earth and drainage is made from gravel.
Try on a seedling to a hole and water it. At its bottom, a hill is poured from the prepared soil mixture. Then they put a tree on it, spread its roots and gently fill it with soil. In this case, the earth is rammed so that there are no voids. The root neck after planting should be at ground level, and in no case be buried. The seedling is tied to a support and a hole is formed around it.
To get a good harvest, you need to arrange proper tree care. In general, dukes are unpretentious, so they received a lot of positive reviews from gardeners.
Care and watering
This plant does not need abundant watering and top dressing, as it has a strong root system. Younger seedlings need more care.
Important! Overflows and heavy rainfall can cause cracking of the bark on the trunk and branches, as well as the appearance of gum.
- before flowering;
- in June at the time of pouring fruit;
- in autumn to prepare for wintering.
In rainy weather in spring or autumn, watering is not carried out. It is necessary to carry out cultivation and removal of weeds under the trees. For ease of maintenance, the area under the crown can be mulched with mowed grass.
To get a good harvest, cherries also need to take care of top dressing. In spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied in moderation. During this period, urea, superphosphate and potassium sulfate are used. After harvesting, potassium phosphorus fertilizers are added.
Dukes do not like the increased level of acid in the soil, so experts recommend liming the soil every 5 years. For this purpose, lime, dolomite flour, chalk or wood ash are used.
To get good annual yields from sweet cherry trees, you need to take care of pollinating trees. It is necessary to plant cherries and cherries on the site.
Varieties of cherries are well suited for pollination:
From cherry for this purpose, you can plant varieties:
Important! For each other, dukes are poor pollinators.If you do not take care of pollinating trees, you can’t wait for a good harvest.
Pest and Disease Control
Cherries are highly resistant to many diseases and pests.. In adverse conditions (with prolonged heavy rains), some fungal and viral diseases may occur. At the first signs of the disease, appropriate chemicals should be used, for example, Signum, Quadrice, Chorus, Topaz, Nitrafen, Skor.
The variety is less likely than other types of fruit trees to be affected by a cherry fly, but in dry and hot weather it can be attacked by pests such as ticks, cherry sawflies, moths, aphids and weevils, as well as bark beetles, silkworms. In case of severe damage to these insects, such chemical preparations as the Inspector, Balazo, Karbofos, Aktara, and Koragen are used.It is better to prevent any problem than to solve it later; therefore, the prevention of the appearance of diseases and insect pests is important.
For this, professional gardeners recommend:
- in early spring to carry out preventive treatments with Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate;
- in the fall, dig the earth around the trunk;
- trim affected and dry branches, and cover sections of the sections with garden varieties;
- remove fallen fruits and dispose of them (dig in), as well as collect all the cherries so that they do not rot on the tree;
- carry out the removal of weed grass under the trees, as it is a nursery for pests and diseases;
- in the autumn, rake and burn fallen leaves;
- follow all the rules of agricultural cultivation;
- remove and overwrite the old exfoliating bark, as well as whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches in spring and autumn;
- periodically inspect trees to identify diseases and pests in order to take timely measures to combat them.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Before fruiting, the planted tree grows and develops rapidly.I am. But after the beginning of the return of the fruit, growth slows sharply. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out forming and regulating pruning from the very beginning of the life of a tree. In the first year in spring, before buds open, the central conductor is shortened to 0.6 m, and the side branches to 0.4 m.
In the future, the shoots are cut to 1/3. Such a procedure in the first year of seedling growth can significantly reduce the yield, but the problem occurs only once. Side branches are cut depending on the angle of inclination with respect to the trunk - the more, the less cropping.
It is also necessary to ensure that there is no thickening of the crown. To do this, cut off excess and growing in the wrong direction branches. The crown is formed in the form of tiers. If necessary, carry out sanitary pruning. For this purpose, dry and diseased branches and shoots are cut.
Harvesting and storage
Depending on the climate, berry picking starts in June or July. In colder regions, the crop is removed from the branches of the tree later.
You need to pick fruits with the stem - This will save them longer. It is not worth storing berries for a long time, they do not have high keeping quality. The transportation of such fruits is unimportant. It is better to use them for processing if you have harvested in large quantities.
Store for fresh consumption of fruits in the refrigerator for no more than 14 days. In this case, it is better to put the berries in a jar of glass and re-layer each layer with leaves from the tree. You only need to wash your berries before eating them.. Excellent candied fruits, jam, marshmallows, compotes, liquors are obtained from the red cherry. Fruits can be frozen.
The optimal temperature for storage is -1 ... + 1 ° C, humidity - 95%.
Dyuks are resistant to frost, therefore, they do not carry out special measures to protect them from the cold. It is enough to mulch the trunk section.Sawdust, hay, straw, humus are taken as mulch.
In regions with harsh winters, it is necessary to protect them from the cold and rodents with burlap, roofing felt or lapnik. The same manipulations are carried out with young seedlings, wherever they grow, but the material is chosen breathable.
When the snow falls, you can throw snow on the near-stem section for additional insulation.
Did you know? The first domestic variety of cherries was bred by I.V. Michurin. In 1926, he crossed cherries of the Yubileinaya variety with sweet cherry Pervenets, and the result was a black consumer goods duke.
Dukes are a hybrid of cherries and cherries. This culture is unpretentious, undemanding to irrigation and top dressing. It gives good harvests of fruits that advantageously combine the taste of cherries and cherries. The main thing is to take care of pollinating trees, and then a high yield of juicy red fruits is guaranteed.